World Monitor Mag WM_June 2018 web - Page 70

CULTURE The shape of the Kazakh yurt’s dome had low hemisphere shape. The hoop was large in diameter, poles had big curves on the bottom parts. Separate wooden parts of the yurt’s carcas were so strong that they could handle the weight of felt and insulating cover for winters, snow and wind pressure. The frame was binded durable and secure way, so that assembled Kazakh yurt could be lift up without taking it down. The wooden frame’s weight for a large eight-rope yurt was in average 150-200 kilos. The kazakh yurt’s door is called Sykyrlauyk – meaning ‘squeaky’ (‘creaking’). The door elements are put together without using nails. Door and its jambs would be decorated with various carved ornaments, painted in different colors and encrusted with bones. Felt cover of yurt was composed of four main elements that matched the four carcas parts. Lettice cylinder wall was covered with four-square pieces of felt that closed one third of the dome. Two trapesoidal felts were covering the whole dome, leaving just the rim open. The rectangular felt was bind onto the three angles only, keeping the fourth one open to let the light and fume out in warm weather or closed during the rainy, snowy and cold times. The door was a final felt-made part. It was rectangular cloth sewn of two felt layers and hemmed with the grass-made mat. The felt door was attached to the rim on the top and would touch the floor on the bottom. Instead of separate felts for the dome and walls, there were long covers for carcas hanging from the rim to the very bottom of the yurt. Such coverings were pointed out by S. I. Rudenko in the Western Kazakhstan. They were also present in Semey and Karaganda oblasts. All felt covers were trimmed with hair trace to be firmer. The hair ropes would sometimes be sewn onto the felt angles to be bound on the frame of the yurt. The work to assemple and reassemble the yurt was relied on women. Kazakh yurt can be set up by 2-3 women. It can take them just one hour to accomplish. First, the units (Kerege) were put around and bind together with brain. The door frame was put and attached in between two grids. Then, any man would put up the rim, using a special perch with the fork on the edge. The rim was bound with 3-4 poles, then the others were put in and bound. The lettice wall on the top would be pulled together by fabric ribbon that was 30-45 sm wide. Baskur usually had an ornament and was one of the decorative element in the yurt’s interior. Baskurs with pile pattern are widespread in the Southern Kazakhstan where carpet weaving was practiced. The wealthy Kazakh yurts were pulled together with two or three baskurs. If the yurt was covered with felt, then Beldeu was bound in two spots outside. Felt valve were attached on the final stage. Ribbons of different sizes and ornaments were weaved from wool, mainly camel yarn. They were decorating the interiors. Fabric or braided narrow ribbons were hanging down the rims. They were tied up to the driven stake in the middle of the yurt. Ribbons for pulling together poles in case of moving were also hanging from the ceiling. These ribbons often had colorful brushes on the ends. In case of the strong wind additional support-pole were put inside the yurt, the rope loop was thown on top of the dome. In centuries of nomadic life Kazakhs worked out strict and rational distribution of the limited space of their home where all the necessary for living could be stored. Parts of Kazakh yurt Kazakh yurt was always set on an open and sunny place. It was on purpose since all economic and domestic activities for a nomad were directly related to the cycle of sun. The door to the yurt was placed strictly facing the South. In accordance with the sun shines angle streaming through the top hole in the yurt, gradual shift of sun light from one side of the yurt to another, a nomad would define time and build the day schedule. That is why everything had its strict order: furniture placement and dividing the yurt into the parts. The place for the shelter/fireplace was made in the middle of the yurt. Such setting created the best for condition fire draft and even warming up the space. In the end of 19th – beginning of 20th century the fire was breed on the ground, making a special pit (socket) for it. Above the fire there were iron tripod for the boiler or Mosy with the hook to hang the pot. The ceiling in the yurt apart from the fireplace was covered with homespun and felts. Opposite the door (the best place), by the yurt’s wall the cabinet was set or the main property was kept. A special wooden stand were set for dower chests, felt made cases, bags with extra clothing and other things. Folded blankets and pillows were put on top. Sometimes this storage was covered wth ornamented felt carpet or fabric covering wih embroidery. The place in front of the storage/cabinet was called Tor – the most honorable place in the yurt. Usually the head of the family or most honored guests were taking this place. On top of the regular felt, the place was covered by special underlays to sit on, wool quilted, fur (Korpe, Bostek), ornamneted with felt or carpet. The Kazakh yurt space by the entrance – Bosaga – was designed for households. Female side was located on the right from 66 world monitor CULTURE The shape of the Kazakh yurt’s dome had low hemisphere shape. The hoop was large in diameter, poles had big curves on the bottom parts. covers were trimmed with hair trace to be firmer. The hair ropes would sometimes be sewn onto the felt angles to be bound on the frame of the yurt. Separate wooden parts of the yurt’s carcas were so strong that they could handle the weight of felt and insulating cover for winters, snow and wind pressure. The frame was binded durable and secure way, so that assembled Kazakh yurt could be lift up without taking it down. The wooden frame’s weight for a large eight-rope yurt was in average 150-200 kilos. The work to assemple and reassemble the yurt was relied on women. Kazakh yurt can be set up by 2-3 women. It can take them just one hour to accomplish. First, the units (Kerege) were put around and bind together with brain. The door frame was put and attached in between two grids. Then, any man would put up the rim, using a special perch with the fork on the edge. The rim was bound with 3-4 poles, then the others were put in and bound. The lettice wall on the top would be pulled together by fabric ribbon that was 30-45 sm wide. Baskur usually had an ornament and was one of the decorative element in the yurt’s interior. Baskurs with pile pattern are widespread in the Southern Kazakhstan where carpet weaving was practiced. The wealthy Kazakh yurts were pulled together with two or three baskurs. If the yurt was covered with felt, then Beldeu was bound in two spots outside. Felt valve were attached on the final stage. The kazakh yurt’s door is called Sykyrlauyk – meaning ‘squeaky’ (‘creaking’). The door elements are put together without using nails. Door and its jambs would be decorated with various carved ornaments, painted in different colors and encrusted with bones. Felt cover of yurt was composed of four main elements that matched the four carcas parts. Lettice cylinder wall was covered with four-square pieces of felt that closed one third of the dome. Two trapesoidal felts were covering the whole dome, leaving just the rim open. The rectangular felt was bind onto the three angles only, keeping the fourth one open to let the light and fume out in warm weather or closed during the rainy, snowy and cold times. The door was a final felt-made part. It was rectangular cloth sewn of two felt layers and hemmed with the grass-made mat. The felt door was attached to the rim on the top and would touch the floor on the bottom. Instead of separate felts for the dome and walls, there were long covers for carcas hanging from the rim to the very bottom of the yurt. Such coverings were pointed out by S. I. Rudenko in the Western Kazakhstan. They were also present in Semey and Karaganda oblasts. 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