World Monitor Mag WM_June 2018 web - Page 69

CULTURE All life of a Kazakh was related to yurt. Dome (Shanyrak) was family relic and passed on from generation to generation. Black dome of father’s yurt was honored by sons as shrine. If a Kazakh vowed in all seriousness, he would look up at the dome. The great attention was given to the wedding yurt (Ak otau). Its quality and beauty of decoration would have to ensure happiness to a new family. This could be the reason, as Margulan puts it: “...for the artistic work inside the yurt. Therefore, Kazakhs of average prosperity wouldn’t spare all means or materials. Everyone would strive to make the wedding yurt more decorated and elegant. They would often spend all their wealth just for the wedding”. Kazakh yurt is not only an element of the people’s material culture. It contains symbolism and variety of information about religious and mythological picture of the world. The model for Khazakh nation’s and their ancestors’ world picture were signs from external environment and human society. The yurt structure. How to make it? There is a tight connection and parallel that can be traced between conceptual model of the world and yurt in its construction. Kazakh yurt is made of wooden frame (carcas) and felt cover. Wooden frame contains grid, rim (hoop), poles connecting grid with rim, and door frame. The reachest Kazakh yurt is a a ten-rope yurt. It is also called ‘A Khan yurt’ since only wealthy people could afford such type. The most widespread yurt is a six-rope yurt. This means the yurt is put together (assembled) from six grids – Kerege in Kazakh. The size of the yurt is determined (defined) by the number of ropes. A number of grids depends on a number of ropes. The number of concave elements of the construction (Uuks) is relevant to the number of grids. These concave elements compose the yurt’s dome. Resting place for hosts TOR (Honorable place) Resting place for children Elements for cylindrical wall in the yurt were compiled of 20 crossed Saganaks fastened with straps made of camel leather. Binding is very mobile, therefore grids could be easily shifted and moved apart. Size of the elements (units) wasn’t standard, but the length for aligned unit wouldn’t exceed 2 meters at 1.2-1.5 meters of overall height. The size of Kazakh yurt depends on the size of diamond-shaped wholes in the grid. These diamond-shaped holes are called – Top koz kerege (where you can place one fist) and Zhel koz kerege (where you can place two fists). Top koz kerege (smaller diamond-shaped hole) were made of massive bars (or planks). That is why they were smaller. Zhel koz kerege were made of thin and light bars. Therefore, the holes were larger. Large-hole bars were less firm and were used to make the yurt for people of average wealth . Shanyrak – is a circle that forms the ceiling in the yurt. Shanyrak is made of birch or black willow. In the middle of Shanyrak, Kuldireush is set that stops felt from falling off. There is a thik round plank up there. 5-6 concave layout Shelter ASSEMBLY Storage place for horse harness Male space AKBOSSAGA (sacred doorstep) Female space Storage place for utensils Kuldireush binds this plank with the circle of Shanyrak. Elements that bind Kerege and Shanyrak togehter and cunstructing dome shape of the yurt’s ceiling are called Uuks – long bended sticks. Round the rim through-holes were made to put in the poles’ edges that were up to 2.5 meters long. On the top they were finished with four-facets bevel (sharpening). Yurt manufacturers (producers) make Uuks (long bended sticks) from willow branches that grow on the riversides. There are wipping willow, blue, black and light willow, and other types that grow in different regions of Kazakhstan. According to ageold experience, willow is the best tree to produce frame for Kazakh yurt. The tree has one other name among the people. Uuks and Kerege made of dried willow branches are light-weighted, but firm. Ripped off and dried willow was steamed in the lamb’s dung, then was shaped into a curve. The prepared planks were cut sharp from one side and rounded from the other (in the cross-section). To make planks resilient they had fore-and-aft furrows cut on the top. In the past wealthy people made frames for kazakh yurt out of birch. Such frame is always super firm. supported by EUROBAK 65 CULTURE All life of a Kazakh was related to yurt. Dome (Shanyrak) was family relic and passed on from generation to generation. Black dome of father’s yurt was honored by sons as shrine. If a Kazakh vowed in all seriousness, he would look up at the dome. The great attention was given to the wedding yurt (Ak otau). Its quality and beauty of decoration would have to ensure happiness to a new family. This could be the reason, as Margulan puts it: “...for the artistic work inside the yurt. Therefore, Kazakhs of average prosperity wouldn’t spare all means or materials. Everyone would strive to make the wedding yurt more decorated and elegant. They would often spend all their wealth just for the wedding”. Kazakh yurt is not only an element of the people’s material culture. It contains symbolism and variety of information about religious and mythological picture of the world. The model for Khazakh nation’s and their ancestors’ world picture were signs from external environment and human society. The yurt structure. How to make it? There is a tight connection and parallel that can be traced between conceptual model of the world and ]\[]ۜX[ۋ^Z]\\XYHو[[YB\\H[[ݙ\[[YB۝Z[ܚY [H  K\ۛX[™ܚY][K[܈[YKHXX\^Z]\\HH[\H]\ ]\[˜[Y8&H[]\8&H[HۛHX[B[H[YܙX\KH[Y\XY]\\H^ \H]\ \›YX[H]\\]]\ \[XY BH^ܚY8$\YH[^Z B^HوH]\\]\Z[Y Y[Y HBH\و\ˈH\وܚY™\[ۈH\و\ˈH\وۘ]H[[Y[وHۜX[ۂ]ZH\[][H\وܚY˂\Hۘ]H[[Y[\HB]\8&\YK^[]\[XB܈”ܘYHXH܂ܜH\\“X[HXBԂۛܘXHXJB[\RГQBXܙYܜ\ B[X[HXBܘYHXB܈][[”\[XB܈[[TSPB[[Y[܈[[X[[[H]\\H\[Yو ܛYY[Z™\[Y]\XYHو[Y[X]\[[\\H[ؚ[K\YܙBܚY[HX\[HYY[[ݙY\\ ^HوH[[Y[ []H\۸&][\ ]H[܈[YۙY[][&]^YY Y]\] KLKBY]\وݙ\[ZY [\]\[\[]H\Bو[\Zˈ[[Y[][\YB[[\ZZ\[[X[™YH\HوH]\8&\Z[[\H[Y]Z8$ۙ[YXˈ[H[BY Z\\HXYH][B\&HY\]\H\ HY]\›ۙˈۈH^H\H[\Y]\YX]][ \[[KH^Hو^Z]\\[ۈB^HوX[[ۙ \\Y\[BܚY \HX[[ۙ \\Y\\B[Y8$ވ\YH \H[H[XHۙH\ H[[ވ\YH \B[H[XH\Kވ\YBX[\X[[ۙ \\YJH\HXYBوX\]H\ ܈[K]\B^H\HX[\[ވ\YH\BXYHو[[Y\ˈ\YܙKB\\H\\\KZH\\B\\H[\H\YXZHH]\܈[Hو]\YHX[ ]\X[YX\\ X\HXZH]ZŠۙ[YXHH[[\]ܛۈH]\Y\ˈ\H\B\[[YKX[Y[[\\\]ܛ[Y\[Y[ۜو^Z[Xܙ[YKB^\Y[K[\H\YHœXH[YH܈^Z]\ HYB\ۙH\H[[ۙH[K]Z[\YHXYHوYY[˜[\\HY ]ZYY ]\K\Yٙ[YY[\X[YY[H[X&\[[\\Y[B\KH\\Y[\H]\HۙHYH[[YHH\[Hܛ\X[ۊKXZH[œ\[Y[^HYܙKX[ XY\˜]ۈH [H\X[H[BXYH[Y\܈^Z]\]و\ X[YH\[^\\\\K[\Z8$\H\H]ܛ\BZ[[[H]\ [\Z\XYBو\܈X[ˈ[HZYBو[\Z[\]\\]][H[[ٙ\H\BZ[[\\K KMۘ]B\ܝYHUTАR