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1. 2017 N.D. Laws Ch. 416, § 8. 2. Ashlea Ebeling, Old Money, New Bottle: Decant If You Don’t Like The Terms Of An Old Trust, FORBES (Mar. 16, 2017), https://www.forbes. com/sites/ashleaebeling/2017/03/16/old-money-new- bottle-decant-if- you-dont-like-the-terms-of-an-old- trust/#58959997f32a. 3. WEBSTER’S II NEW RIVERSIDE UNIVERSITY DICTIONARY 352 (1984). 4. William R. Culp, Jr. & Briani Bennett Mellen, Trust Decanting: An Overview and Introduction to Creative Planning Opportunities, 45 REAL PROPERTY, TRUST AND ESTATE LAW JOURNAL, 1, 3 (Spring 2010). 5. See Phipps v. Palm Beach Trust Co., 142 Fla. 782,196 So. 299 (Fla. 1940). 6. See generally N.D.C.C. Ch. 59-16.1. New York enacted the first trust decanting statute in the early 1990s, with the intent of avoiding the newly enacted generation skipping transfer tax (“GST”). See Stewart E. Sterk, Trust Decanting: A Critical Perspective, 38 Cardozo L. Rev. 1993, 2004 (2017). 7. “Invaded trust” refers to the initial trust whose principal is appointed to a second trust under N.D.C.C. Ch. 59-16.1. See N.D.C.C. § 59-16.1-02 (5). 8. “Appointed trust” is defined as “an irrevocable trust which receives principal from an invaded trust under [N.D.C.C. Ch. 59-16.1], including a trust created by the settlor of the invaded trust, under the terms of the invaded trust or any other trust instrument, or by the trustees, acting in that capacity, of the invaded trust.” N.D.C.C. § 59-16.1-02 (1). 9. N.D.C.C. §§ 59-16.1-04; 59-16.1-05. 10. N.D.C.C. § 59-16.1-04; see also N.D.C.C. § 59- 16.1-02 (8) (defining unlimited discretion as “the unlimited power to distribute principal”)). 11. N.D.C.C. § 59-16.1-05. North Dakota is one of several states that allow decanting when a trustee does not have unlimited discretion. See Culp, supra at 38 n.248 (listing states where absolute discretion is not required) (Spring 2010)). 12. N.D.C.C. § 59-16.1-04. 13. Id. at (1). 14. Id. 15. N.D.C.C. § 59-16.1-02 (8). 16. N.D.C.C. § 59-16.1-05. 17. Melissa J. Willms, Decanting Trusts: Irrevocable, Not Unchangable, 6 EST. PLAN & COMMUNITY PROP. L.J. 35, 36 (2013). 18. Myron Kove, James M. Kosakow, 1 IRREVOCABLE TRUSTS § 1.2 (4th Ed.). 19. Michael J. Skeary, The Power of Trust Decanting: The Authority for the Power, Its Scope, and the Fiduciary Duty and Tax Implications of Its Use, 32 PROPERTY & PROBATE, vol. 5, 23 (October 2018). 20. See, e.g., Morse v. Kraft, 466 Mass. 92, 992 N.E.2d 1021 (Mass. 2013) (approving the trustee’s decision to decant the existing four sub-trusts into four new sub-trusts due to the beneficiaries’ ages and qualifications to manage trust property)). 21. See Willms, supra at 40. This list is, of course, not exhaustive. 22. See N.D.C.C. § 59-16.1-16. 23. N.D.C.C. § 59-16.1-16 (1). 24. Id. at (2). 25. Id. at (3). This limitation is subject to the notice provisions in § 59-16.1-12 or the approval of a court of competent jurisdiction. 26. N.D.C.C. § 59-16.1-17. 27. See Jonathan G. Blattmachr, Kim Kamin, Jeffrey M. Bergman, Estate Planning’s Most Powerful Tool: Powers of Appointment Refreshed, Redefined, and Reexamined, 47 Real Prop. Tr. & Est. L.J. 529, 555-57 (2013) (discussion)). INVESTITURE OF JUDGE DANIEL BORGEN Judge Daniel Borgen was recognized as the newest South Central District Judge in an investiture ceremony at the Burleigh County Courthouse on January 24. WINTER 2019 15