Whittlesea CALD Communities Family Violence Research Report 2012 - Page 59

58 The evaluation report concluded that there is a strong need for recognition that CALD specific groups are necessary to enable CALD men to embrace behavioural change and reduce violent behaviour. Primary Prevention Models There has been an increased focus on the development of primary prevention models aimed at preventing violence before it occurs alongside intervention and early intervention strategies. (Powell, Dr. A, 2011, VicHealth, 2006) At both State and Federal level a ‘high-level framework’ for the 63 prevention of violence against women has been developed through a number of policy documents that identify ‘effective and promising strategies, priority areas, population groups and sites.’ (Powell, Dr. A, 2011, p.4) Primary prevention models aim to stop violence before it occurs by promoting non-violent social norms and equal and respectful relationships between men and women (VicHealth, 2006). Primary prevention strategies may be targeted at changing individual and peer group norms and behaviours or more broadly at societal and institutional level (Powell, Dr. A, 2011). Drawing on the existing literature, the VicHealth framework outlines a number of reasons why primary prevention should be targeted at CALD communities specifically including: ? ? ? ? consensus in the literature that primary prevention should be tailored to the needs of individual communities; the fact that some migrants and refugees have immigrated from countries where there is greater gender inequality, more rigid gender roles and greater cultural acceptance of violence against women; evidence from the literature that communities experiencing transition from traditional societies to societies where gender relations are more equal experience a heightened, though temporary, risk of increased violence against women; findings from a Community Attitudes Survey that there is a higher level of support for attitudes associated with acceptance and perpetration of violence against women in CALD communities (VicHealth, 2006, p.54) One area of primary prevention that has been singled out for further development is the potential role of ‘bystanders’ in the prevention of violence against women. (Powell, Dr. A, 2011) Bystander theory and practice models in the area of violence against women are aimed at explaining and promoting ‘pro-social’ bystander behaviour. (Powell, Dr. A, 2011) Pro-social bystanders are those who take action to intervene either in an individual act of violence or by challenging social norms and attitudes that perpetuate violence in the community (Powell, Dr. A, 2011). Primary Prevention Models Aimed at Community & Religious Leaders The primary research conducted for the scoping exercise indicated that both victims and perpetrators make disclosures of family violence to religious leaders and seek their advice and assistance in family violence situations. Religious and community leaders also have authority and respect within their communities and therefore have the potential to influence attitudes towards family violence. 63 Preventing Violence Before it Occurs: A framework and background paper to guide the primary prevention of violence against women in Victoria (Vichealth, 2007), A Right to Respect: Victoria’s Plan to Prevent Violence Against Women 2010-2010 (State Government of Victoria, 2009), Time for Action, the National Council’s Plan for Australia to Reduce Violence Against Women and Their Children (National Council to Prevent Violence Against Women and their Children, 2009)