Whittlesea CALD Communities Family Violence Research Report 2012 - Page 57

56 Community legal education provision to new and emerging communities should be informed by an understanding of the broader context and experiences of these communities including pre and postarrival experiences and laws and legal processes in countries of origin (Armstrong, 2010,Dimopoulos, 2010). The literature also highlights the importance of also engaging with and including newly arrived men in education strategies (Dimopoulos, 2010, InTouch Inc, 2010, VicHealth, 2006). The literature acknowledges that refugee men are affected by pre-arrival experiences of war, torture and trauma (Pease & Rees, 2006) and experience difficulties in adjusting to western societies where gender roles are less rigid and defined (Pease & Rees, 2006). The literature underlines the importance of targeting information and education at CALD men as well as women. (Fisher, 2009) Fisher’s report advocates strongly for the involvement of CALD men to ensure the success of family violence prevention strategies (Fisher, p. xxi). It is demonstrated in studies reported in the literature that the experience of resettlement, particularly changes in women’s social and economic status can increase tension and the risk of violence by men towards women (Erez et. al, 2009, Pease & Rees, Pittaway, 2004, 2006, Rees, Raj & Silverman, 2002). Pease & Rees found that whilst women often felt empowered by changes to their social and economic status, men reported feeling disempowered and attributed conflict within the relationship to these changes (Pease & Rees, 2006, p.4) Drawing on studies from Asian and Middle Eastern communities in the US, Raj & Silverman report that changes in women’s behaviour often results in increased efforts by men to maintain or regain control, including through violence (Raj & Silverman, 2002, p.370). Pittaway’s research with refugee communities concludes that changes to men’s social status in combination with other factors such as unemployment and lack of financial security can increase the risk of violence. (Pittaway, 2004, p.30) Some pre-arrival experiences, particularly torture and trauma, are known to have ongoing psychological effects and make resettlement and adaptation more difficult (Easteal, 1996 in Pittaway, 2004, p.28). Working with Perpetrators - Men’s Behaviour Change Programs Programs targeted at male perpetrators of family violence have been a common aspect of intervention strategies since the first perpetrator programs emerged in the mid 1970s (Salter, 2012, Day et. al, 2009, Day et. al, 2010, Laing, Dr. L, 2002, Feder et al., 2008). Programs that attempt to address perpetrator’s behaviour by holding them accountable and changing their behaviour are included as part of the Fe ?????????????d???????????A???????I???????Y??????????????)]????????? ????????Q???9??????? ????????I?????Y??????????????]????????????? ???????(?????Q???Y??!?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????)??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Y??!??????????)???????U????Y?????????????????????????????????????????e?????????????????????????)???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????%?????????=???)???????????Q???9??????? ????????I?????Y??????????????]????????????? ?????????????)??????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????)??????????????? ??????????!???????????????????????????????????????????????????e?)????????????????????????????????????!?????????????????????????????????? ????)]????????)A?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????)???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????)????????????????????????????????????1????????0???????((0