Whittlesea CALD Communities Family Violence Research Report 2012 - Page 48

47 (Raj & Silverman, 2002, Erez et. al, 2010). For example the women in Erez et. al’s study reported that social isolation was a common tactic used by abusers to perpetuate dependency and included preventing women from attending English classes, going to school, having employment and speaking to family and friends (Erez et. al, 2010) ? Language barriers: Limited English language proficiency may act as a barrier to women accessing services and compounds many of the other factors that affect CALD women (Aly & Gaba, 2007, InTouch Inc., 2010, Justice Institute of British Columbia, 2007, Runner et. al, 2009). For example, an inability to communicate with the wider community has been found to increase social isolation (Ghafournia, N., 2011, Justice Institute of British Columbia, 2007, Pease & Rees, 2008) and reliance on the perpetrator, giving the perpetrator the opportunity to disseminate misinformation and increase their power and control in the relationship (Ghafournia, N., 2011, Pease & Rees, 2008, Runner et. al, 2009). Limited English language proficiency also presents a barrier to employment, increasing women’s financial dependence on the perpetrator (Ghafournia, N., 2011, Justice Institute of British Columbia, 2007). ? Cultural factors Any discussion regarding the influence of ‘culture’ on CALD women’s experience of family violence must be approached with caution. There is a tendency, noted in the literature, that where family violence in CALD communities is discussed ‘culture’ can become a convenient explanation for the occurrence of family violence (Morris, B., 2007, Pittaway, E., 2004). There is also concern that citing culture as a relevant factor can lead to stereotyping of CALD communities and a failure to recognise the existence of a diversity of views and beliefs about family violence between and within cultures (Morris, B., 2007) as well as the contribution of individual and structural factors to the occurrence of family violence. (Morris, B., 2007, Pittaway, E., 2004). Nevertheless, the literature illustrates that CALD women’s understanding of and response to family violence is influenced to some degree by cultural factors (Erez et. al, 2010, Ghafournia, N., 2011, Immigrant Women’s Domestic Violence Service, 2006, Justice Institute of British Columbia, 2007, Morris, B., 2007, Pittaway, E., 2004, Raj & Silverman, 2002, Pease & Rees, 2008, Runner et. al, 2009). For example, CALD women may migrate from countries of origin where family violence is not recognised as a crime and where there are weak or non-existent community and/or legal sanctions against it. (Erez, et. al, 2010, p.47-48, Raj & Silverman, 2002, p.369-371). There is evidence that CALD groups and individuals often hold traditional views about gender roles (research shows that this is a known risk factor for family violence) (Powell, Dr. A, 2011, VicHealth, 2006) and it is noted that for CALD women there is often an additional stigma attached to se \?][?[?]???H?[???\\?Y??]??P?S??Y[? \?^?] ?[  ? L ??]?\? ? K?[?? ??[[?? ? JK??\?^?][8?&\??\?X\????[??]??[][?]H?Y]??X??]?[Z[H?[?[??HY??X???Y[??&\??\???B??X?\?K????X\??XY?\?[??]?[???Y[????H?YZ?[???]?YH[ \?^?] ?[  ? L K?\?B??\?[ ??Y[?X^H?X\??Z[?????X?\?Y???HZ\???[][?]HY?^H?XZ??]X??]?[Z[B??[?[??H?]H??X?[?][??8?'?[YK????\[??Z[8?'H?Z[??[\?YY??Y\??Y[?[??[?[???[][??\? \?^?][ ? ? L  ? K??[\?[?[YY??]?Y?\??[Z[H?[?[??H\?H8?&?]?]x?&H???&?[Z[x?&HX]\?\???\?Y?H??Y[????H?YZ?[??^\??[\??\?[??H \?^?] ?[  ? L ??]?\? ? K??[?? ??[[?? ? K?Z? ??[?\?X[? ? ?K??Z? ??[?\?X[???H]][Y\?\?X^H?\?[?[??S??Y[??YZ?[??[??Y?[???X[]?[?Y\??][?H??[][?]K??^[\K???B??