Whittlesea CALD Communities Family Violence Research Report 2012 - Page 46

45 LITERATURE REVIEW The purpose of the literature review was to draw on existing research into family violence to identify promising examples and models based on local, national and international research with the potential to be adapted for the City of Whittlesea. The literature review also intended to augment the findings from the primary research conducted as part of the scoping exercise and to ensure a sound evidence base for the proposed model. Approximately forty sources (see references) were compiled and reviewed. A variety of sources were consulted including peer reviewed academic research, research conducted by government and statutory bodies and research conducted by community and philanthropic organisations. A major limitation encountered in the conduct of the literature review was the limited amount of existing research focussing specifically on CALD communities and family violence (Aly & Gaba, 2007; Erez, E. et al, 2009; Ghafournia, N., 2011; Pease & Rees, 2008; Pittaway, E., 2004; Raj, A. & Silverman, J., 2002;). Though in recent years it is noted that there has been more research conducted in this area (Dimopoulos, M., 2010) this is still a largely neglected area of study. A further limitation is the fact that of the CALD focussed research that has been conducted there are only a small number of peer reviewed, quantitative studies and those that have been conducted have limitations.38 (Yoshihama, M. in Runner et. al., 2009) Most of the research consists of small-scale, qualitative studies based on specific migrant groups. (In Touch Inc., 2010, Raj, A. & Silverman, J., 2002, Runner et. al., 2009). Due to these limitations, it was necessary to also draw on non-CALD focussed family violence research to inform the development of the family violence service model. CALD Women: Multiple Complexities, Specific Vulnerability Family violence is recognised as a major health issue in Australia that causes significant and longterm harm for victims, the majority of whom are women (Morgan & Chadwick, 2009). It is sobering to reflect that in Victoria intimate partner violence is the leading contributor to death, disability and ill-health in women aged 15-44, ahead of illicit drug, alcohol and tobacco use (VicHealth, 2004, p.10) There is also a significant economic cost attached to family violence, not just for individuals and 39 families but for government and the community as a whole (Office of Women’s Policy, 2009). All women who are subjected to family violence face difficulties and challenges living with violence, disclosing family violence, finding assistance, accessing support services, leaving and moving on from a family violence situation. In terms of the incidence and prevalence of family violence in CALD communities there is no 40 conclusive evidence that CALD communities experience a greater level of family violence although there is some evidence of a lower likelihood of reporting family violence to the police in cases 38 Limitations identified by Yoshihama include exclusion of portions of the migrant or refugee population where studies have been conducted in English, inattention to differences between race and ethnicity within populations studied, aggregating different groups together, lack of attention to socio-cultural context and lack of comparability due to differing sampling criteria, data collection methods etc (Yoshihama, M. in Runner et. al, 2009, p.42-43) 39 For more detailed information regarding the cost of family violence in Australia refer to discussion at p. 16 and the findings of the KPMG Consulting Report. 40 Morgan & Chadwick report that studies draw differing conclusions, higher levels of family violence were reported in a study by O’Donnell, Smith & Madison, 2002 whereas lower or similar rates of violence were reported in studies conducted by Bassuk, Dawson & Huntington 2006 and Mouzos & Makkai, 2004. Morgan & Chadwick, 2009, p.5