16 What is repeatedly emphasised in the literature, and has been confirmed through consultations conducted through the project, is that CALD women experiencing family violence face additional barriers to accessing appropriate services. Specific factors that contribute to CALD women’s vulnerability in family violence situations include: Personal Barriers ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Immigration issues, uncertainty regarding visa status and fear of deportation; Language barriers caused by lack of or limited English language skills; Isolation from their own community and the broader Australian community and lack of support networks; Lack of familiarity with and knowledge of support services, including how and where to access them; Lack of knowledge about family violence, legal rights and legal processes in the Australian context; Cultural factors including beliefs and norms regarding marriage, separation, divorce and gender roles; Perceived and actual community pressures to stay in the relationship, shame and stigma associated with separation and divorce; Systemic Barriers ? ? ? Ineligibility and exclusion from certain support services and payments due to visa status; Language and communication barriers between women and service providers; Practical difficulties associated with leaving a family violence situation including lack of financial support, difficulties finding suitable employment and difficulties finding suitable housing. Project Aims/Project Objectives and Critical Success Factors Prior to undertaking the scoping exercise it was of concern to service providers in Whittlesea that the anecdotal evidence suggested CALD women experiencing family violence were not accessing or not able to access support services in the same way or in the same numbers as non-CALD women. The anecdotal evidence suggested that existing services were falling short of being able to address family violence in CALD communities. The scoping exercise was intended to operate at two levels. At a local level, the focus was on gaining insight into the experience of family violence and family violence services by CALD communities. Feedback about these experiences was utilised to inform and influence the development of the service model. At a second level, the scoping exercise was intended to draw out best practice and alternative models and approaches to preventing and responding to family violence from the existing literature. The experiences of female survivors of family viole ??H?][??S??[?]Y\?\??[\??\??X?B???Y\??^HX^H]?H??YH[????X??][?H\??X?]?\???\?????H?][?B???[?]H??X^H]?H?Y[??]?\????[Z[H?[?[??H[?]????\]Y[??\??]?HX?]?[B?[?\??[?Y?\?H?[Z[H?[?[??H\????\??Y?\?[?[\?Y[????\?Y?]^\?[?????Y?H[?[?]X?[??[Y]???????X?HH[?[??\??X?H[\[Y[?][?Z[?Y?B???[??[?]K??H???[??^\??\?H?\?[?[?Y?[???HH?X\??\?[?\??[???H[\??[Y[?[??[?[??[Y[???[Z[H?[?[??H?]?[?[?[?[?\??[?[???]Y?Y\?\??]Y]?]\?Xx?&\?S??[?]Y\?H?\?[?\??[??\?[????[?]Y\??????[?Y?]?[?[\[Y[?][????]Y?Y\???