Vet360 Vol 4 Issue 4 August 2017 Vet 360 - Page 19

CPD ACCREDITED ARTICLE tality rate was 1% 62 . Our results show that medetomidine ap- peared not to have affected puppy survival rate and maternal survival rate. In a study involving 37 CSs performed on English Bulldogs, 14.9% of the puppies were stillborn, 8.2% of the puppies alive, were deformed; mainly cleft palate (palatoschisis) and ana- sarca, and 10% of the puppies died before the age of wean- ing 20 . This is similar to the 6.9% birth defects and 15.91%, 24h mortality that Batista et al. (2014) reported for elective CS in English bulldogs. The results from the current study in English bulldogs were similar with respect to the number of deformed puppies (5.59%) but better for percent live birth (96.67%). In 193 puppies from 42 litters, 65 born by sponta- neous delivery, 66 by assisted delivery and 62 by caesarean section, the percentage of stillbirths were 14%, 20% and 8% respectively 26 . Puppy survival rates at birth and at 2h after birth supposedly reflect the effects of perioperative conditions more specifi- cally than at 7d after delivery 12 . This is because deaths within the first week are often associated with factors relating to maternal care, agalactia, undetected birth defects and infec- tious causes 54 . It is important to establish prior to a treatment or procedure whether all the foetuses are alive and well prior to the inter- vention 63 to avoid a false overestimation of the effect of the intervention on puppy mortality. Pre-operative ultrasound Advanced Course in Wildlife Chemical Immobilisation and Field Practice 20–24 November 2017 • • • • Enhance your skills and knowledge in wildlife veterinary practice. Sessions presented in the heart of the Kruger National Park. Partake in a unique solution-based learning experience. Presented by experienced practitioners in wildlife conservation, medicine, pharmacology and research. Contact us today for more information or to book your space. Client Information Centre Tel: +27 (0)12 434 2500 | info@enterprises.up.ac.za SMS the keyword ENTERPRISES followed by VET360 WILDLIFE your name and email to 43366 to receive more information about our full offering. Shifting knowledge to insight enterprises.up.ac.za /vet-science-courses enables one to account for at least some foetuses that died before and therefore those stillbirths may be considered independent of the intervention. The cur- rent study identified 45.6% (36/79) of stillborn puppies on ultrasound examination immediately before the CS was performed. Because the aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of our anaesthetic protocol on puppy sur- vival rates, puppy vigour and maternal survival rates, attempts were made to exclude confounders which may have affected outcome not related to anaes- thetic protocol. These were foetuses detected dead on ultrasound examination prior to administering any drugs included in the anaesthetic protocol and puppies euthanased because they were deformed. This correction is particularly useful when compar- ing puppy survival rates of the English bulldog breed to those of others. English Bulldog puppies not only have poorer survival rates at 2h and at weaning age but also an increased risk of being stillborn or being born with defects requiring euthanasia 20,64 . The maternal sur ff&FRF27GVGv2vB2'WBRbFR#"&F6W2W7FWF6VBvW&RƗfR@vB7B526vR&W&&V&F6FVBg&v7G&0FFFBfgVW2GvF2gFW"F66&vRv2ЧG&2FFFBfgVW22vV&V6v旦VB6W6Pb7VFFVFVF&vR'&VVG2cRFW&Vf&RW"&RЧ7VG27W'BFRfFr'FW"v&W"FB&RЦVF6FvFVFWF֖FRv2BFVFfVB07&V6VB&6f7F"f"W7FW6FRFrrख6G&7BR26fWG66W&2f"&FFЦBVFRvVW6VBf"52FR&F6"bFPFV7G&FVB6fWG&V6&FVBFR7W'&VB7GVG'B&RWVB'&fVB"7V6f6GW&FVB'VFWF֖FR6&VBF𧇖Rw&VFW"v&VW72bFR6v2VffV7G0b"G&VW&v2v7G2rBFRW6Rb&VЦFfRrF6Rr +VrrbVFWF֖FRFVvFWVFWF֖FRBVFWF֖FRGV6VB6֖ 6Ɩ6VffV7G2cbFW&R&RFV&WF6&6vЦ6GfFvW2bFR&6V֖2"G&VW&v0v7BFWVFWF֖FRfW"VFWF֖FRcrFR&'WF"'6W'fVBFffW&V6W26Ɩ6VffV7G2vVVFWF֖FR2&W6VB'FWRЦFWF֖FRv"66&W2fR&VV6vF&RfVV6VB'W7FWF2vVG2fRF"rr0&VV6vF&R6ƖvFǒ7WW&"F&f"FbrrF2&W7V7B#rcfW&FRv"66&W06WfVBFR7W'&VB7GVGvW&RvW"FF6P&W'FVBFW"7GVFW2'&W7V7FfRbWFB`FVƗfW'"W7FWF2&F6W6VB#b#rccFPFRBv6v"66&W2&RV7W&VBgFW"&'F2'FBFVvV&ǒ7GVFW266&PBR֖WFRv2W6VBsBv2FW"FV7G&FV@FBFR66&RBffR֖WFW22&R&VF7FfRb7W"Чffs6֖&ǒWW2WfVF2W&f&VB@ffR֖WFW2gFW"&'FvW&RW72&VF7FfRFF6P77VRBTuU5B#r