Vet360 Vol 4 Issue 4 August 2017 Vet 360 - Page 12

CPD ACCREDITED ARTICLE Feline Neonatal Isoerythrolysis Van der Merwe L.L. BVSc Hons MMed(Vet) Small Animal Medicine, Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies (Outpatients), Faculty of Veterinary Science, Feline Blood Groups Feline blood groups have been charactersed as Type A, Type B and Type AB, with Type A being most preva- lent. The frequency of the blood types differs marked- ly between different breeds of cats and also in differ- ent geographical areas (Table 1). The feline blood group antigens are inherited as a simple autosomal mendelian trait with A being domi- nant over B. Unlike dogs, cats possess naturally occur- ring antibodies (allo-antibodies) against other blood groups which may result in life threatening haemolyt- ic transfusion reactions if incompatible blood is trans- fused. Allo-antibodies can be transferred via colostrum for up to 16 hrs after birth. All type B kittens, and to a lesser extent, type A kittens develop allo-antibodies between 6 – 10 weeks of age in an immune response believed to be triggered by common food and bacterial anti- gens. Type B cats have high titres (1:64 – 1: 2064) of an- ti-A antibodies. These antibodies are mainly of the IgM class and are strong haemolysins and haemaggluti- nins. Type A cats develop only low titres (1:2 – 1:32) of mild anti-B antibodies that consist of both IgG and IgM which accelerate the destruction of incompati- ble transfused red cells. Type AB cats contain no al- lo-antobodies thus are universal recipients. Table 1: Frequency of blood type B in Cats Breeds Country Siamese, Burmese, Tonkinese and Russian blue USA 0% Burmese UK 17% Maine Coone, Norwegian Forest USA 1 – 10% Abyssinian, Birman, Persian, Somali, Sphynx, Scottish fold USA 11 – 20% Persian UK 24% Cornish Rex, Devon Rex USA 20 – 45% Devon Rex SA 50% Exotic and British short hair UK and USA 53 – 58% Domestic shorthair UK, USA, < 3% Domestic shorthair Australia 26% vet360 Issue 04 | AUGUST 2017 | 12 Type B frequency