Vet360 Vol 4 Issue 4 August 2017 Vet 360 - Page 12

CPD ACCREDITED ARTICLE Feline Neonatal Isoerythrolysis Van der Merwe L.L. BVSc Hons MMed(Vet) Small Animal Medicine, Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies (Outpatients), Faculty of Veterinary Science, Lieselvdmvet@gmail.com Feline Blood Groups Feline blood groups have been charactersed as Type A, Type B and Type AB, with Type A being most preva- lent. The frequency of the blood types differs marked- ly between different breeds of cats and also in differ- ent geographical areas (Table 1). The feline blood group antigens are inherited as a simple autosomal mendelian trait with A being domi- nant over B. Unlike dogs, cats possess naturally occur- ring antibodies (allo-antibodies) against other blood groups which may result in life threatening haemolyt- ic transfusion reactions if incompatible blood is trans- fused. Allo-antibodies can be transferred via colostrum for up to 16 hrs after birth. All type B kittens, and to a lesser extent, type A kittens develop allo-antibodies between 6 – 10 weeks of age in an immune response believed to be triggered by common food and bacterial anti- gens. Type B cats have high titres (1:64 – 1: 2064) of an- ti-A antibodies. These antibodies are mainly of the IgM class and are strong haemolysins and haemaggluti- nins. Type A cats develop only low titres (1:2 – 1:32) of mild anti-B antibodies that consist of both IgG and IgM which accelerate the destruction of incompati- ble transfused red cells. Type AB cats contain no al- lo-antobodies thus are universal recipients. Table 1: Frequency of blood type B in Cats Breeds Country Siamese, Burmese, Tonkinese and Russian blue USA 0% Burmese UK 17% Maine Coone, Norwegian Forest USA 1 – 10% Abyssinian, Birman, Persian, Somali, Sphynx, Scottish fold USA 11 – 20% Persian UK 24% Cornish Rex, Devon Rex USA 20 – 45% Devon Rex SA 50% Exotic and British short hair UK and USA 53 – 58% Domestic shorthair UK, USA, < 3% Domestic shorthair Australia 26% vet360 Issue 04 | AUGUST 2017 | 12 Type B frequency