Vet360 Vol 4 Issue 4 August 2017 Vet 360 - Page 11

REPRODUCTION the presence of superficial or cornification vaginal epi- thelial cells which would indicate the presence of oes- trogen-secreting tissue. However, exogenous oestro- gen exposure (such as DES for urinary incontinence) and atypical Cushing’s disease may also cause similar changes to vaginal cytology. 20,27 Progesterone can be used in the diagnosis of ovarian remnant syndrome in bitches or queens. A suspicious history of cyclic “heat” episodes, as well as superficial cells identified on a vaginal cytology can be confirmed by testing plasma progesterone levels about 2 weeks after signs of oestrus subside. Cats can be induced to ovulate using hCG or by repeated stimulation of the vagina with a cotton bud and progesterone taken 2 weeks later. High progesterone would indicate luteal tissue and confirm the diagnosis of an ovarian rem- nant. Following a GnRH-stimulation test, levels of LH in sus- pect ovarian-remnant bitches (4.1 ± 0.7 μg/L) were significantly higher than bitches in anoestrus (0.64 ± 0.04 μg/L) but significantly lower than intact bitches (20.2 ± 3.6 μg/L ). 11 However, lack of availability of a quantitative test for LH leave this in the research realm. One of the most promising tests for determining the presence of ovarian tissue is Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH). Because the ovaries are the sole source of AMH, a positive test would indicate the presence of ovaries or ovarian tissue. 28,29 If the remnant is very small, it may not produce enough AMH so a nega- tive test does not rule out ORS. The test is current- ly available only through Cornell University, requires one red top tube (shipped frozen or on ice) and costs $70 per sample, however enquiries can be made at the Veterinary Population Management Laboratory at Onderstepoort. REFERENCES Available online Looking to move to Australia? Apiam Animal Health is currently recruiting for a range of veterinary and associated positions throughout its network of 28 clin- ics which are located in some of the most beautiful rural locations across Australia. Apiam employs over 100 highly experienced, industry leading veterinarians with expertise across the pig, dairy, feedlot, sheep, equine and companion animal sectors. Whether your passion is production or companion animals, Apiam can support your future career development. Successful candidates will be supported through the visa and relocation process. For further information regarding available positions please refer to the Apiam website or email the Recruit- ment Team at Issue 04 | AUGUST 2017 | 11