Vet360 Vol 3 Issue 04 August 2016 - Page 20

GASTROENTEROLOGY Diagnosing Inflammatory Bowel Disease In The Dog And Cat Dr Martin de Scally BVSc, Hons MMedVet (Med) Small Animals (Pret) Hilton Veterinary Hospital e-mail: martin@hiltonvethospital.co.za Tel: 0333434602 | Fax: 0333431021 Canine and feline inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic (> 3 weeks), idiopathic, inflammatory enteropathy. These idiopathic inflammatory changes may respond to immunosuppression but it is vital to rule out all known causes before calling the disease idiopathic. Introduction and description IBD is currently under intensive investigation. With evolving theories of pathogenesis, aetiologies and treatment, IBD will probably continue to be redefined. As an example, histopathological findings together with new technologies such as 16sRNA pyrosequencing and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) and candidate gene sequencing have helped clarify certain previously idiopathic diseases that were incorporated under the IBD umbrella. Granulomatous colitis (GC) and Histiocytic ulcerative colitis (HUC) seen in Boxers and French Bulldogs is now known to be highly associated with attached invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC); these cases have a long term response to fluoroquinolone antimicrobials and do not respond well to immunosuppressive therapy. Classification Traditionally IBD has been classified histologically according to the type of inflammatory cell infiltration and the site of inflammation, for example lymphoplasmacytic enteritis or granulomatous colitis. Secondary changes in the intestinal mucosa including, villous atrophy, fusion of villi, fibrosis, lacteal dilation and crypt changes are considered important in characterising the significance of these infiltrates. IBD can be clinically classified into food responsive enteropathies (FRE), antibiotic responsive enteropathies (ARE) and idiopathic IBD. A GAME CHANGER Granulomatous colitis (GC) and Histiocytic ulcerative colitis (HUC) seen in Boxers and French Bulldogs is now known to be highly associated with attached invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC); these cases have a long term response to fluoroquinolone antimicrobials and do not respond well to immunosuppressive therapy. Clinical Signs The clinical signs of (IBD) are similar to other chronic enteropathies (CE) and are determined by the site, extent, chronicity and severity of disease. Vomiting, for example, may reflect upper gastro-intestinal involvement; large volume diarr XK\\[ۋY[[K[ܙ^XH[\]\[\]\H\[ZXYۜ›X^H[X]HX[[\[[[[Y[[X[[YH\]Y[][\]\[]X\܂Y[X]^XHX^H[X]HۚX\X\K]Y[›X^H[]HHY\H\X\H\X][ۋH[X[YۜX^HXX]H[]\]Hݙ\[YB[ݙ\\]X[H\ܙ[\X\\X\Y\۸&\\X\K\]X[[ܙX]X\X\\˂[X[Yۜ\H\YܙHYX[H[ۜ]ۛ[ۚX]\X[HۙH[X]]Hو[\[[[[Y[ ] ͌\YH UQT M U ͌UQT Mܚ[˚[  M ̍H LN B