Vet360, December 2016 - Page 31

CPD ACCREDITED ARTICLE CPD Questions AC/1597/16 1. Which one of the following statements pertaining to gastric dilatation is CORRECT? a. Stomach dilatation mainly caused by aerophagia. b. Stomach dilatation is mainly caused by fermentation of carbohydrate by bacteria and the production of gas. c. Stomach dilatation is mainly caused by ingesta. d. Stomach dilatation is mainly caused by gastric secretions and transudate from venous obstruction. e. Stomach dilatation is mainly caused by a combination of fluid and ingesta accumulation. 2. Which one of the following conditions is NOT a strong risk factor for GDV? a. A fast eating style. b. Exercise or stress after a meal. c. Delayed gastric emptying. d. Large-breed dog. e. Large thoracic depth-to-width ratio. 3. Which one of the gastric displacement directions listed below does NOT occur with GDV? a. The stomach rotates in a clockwise direction. b. The stomach rotates in an anti-clockwise direction c. Displacement of the pylorus occurs from the right side toward the ventral midline. d. The fundus goes in a ventral direction toward the right abdominal wall. e. The pyloric antrum ends up in a dorsal position on the left side 4. Which one of the clinical signs listed below is typical of a dog presented with GDV? a. Hypersalivation with bile stained vomitus. b. Tachycardia with a waterhammer pulse. c. Unproductive vomiting and retching. d. Abdominal pain. e. Hyperdynamic shock: congested mucous membranes , short CRT and tachycardia. 5. Which one of the factors listed below is CORRECT when it comes to establishing a prognosis in a patient presented with GDV? a. Persistence of clinical signs for more than 2 hours is a poor prognosis. b. Lactate of > 6.4mmol/L which remains stable is a good prognosis. c. A Lactacte of > 6.4 mmol/L which decreases about 40% after fluid therapy and decompression is a good prognosis. d. Concurrent splenic torsion worsens the prognosis. e. A lactacte of >6.4 mmol/L which increases by at least 40% after initial fluid therapy and decompression is a good prognosis. 6. Which one of the following statements regarding the emergency treatment of a GDV is INCORRECT? a. Place venous catheters of the largest gauge possible in the cephalic veins or jugular vein. b. Deliver shock doses (90 ml/kg/hr) of intravenous fluid. c. Deliver isotonic fluids in increments of one-fourth of the shock dose, and evaluate the patient’s response after each onefourth bolus. d. Adjust the rate and volume of fluids administered according to the assessment of several clinical parameters. e. Colloids at a dose of 4 ml/kg are recommended during hypovolaemic shock treatment. 7. If intubation is not successful, percutaneous gastrocentesis with 18G needles is an option to decompress the stomach. Which one of the following statements is most correct? a. Percutaneous gastrocentesis is performed on the left side. b. If the spleen is present, gastrocentesis can still be performed - but on the opposite side. c. The patient must be under deep sedation and the area properly prepped. d. It is important to make sure the spleen has not been displaced in the right side of the abdomen. e. Gastrocentesis must be performed before attempting to pass an orogastric tube. Issue 06 | DECEMBER 2016 | 31