Vapouround magazine VAPOUROUND MAGAZINE OCTOBER ISSUE19 - Page 35

How does it work with vaping? When smoking cigarettes, nicotine is absorbed mainly across the surface of the lungs, where rapid absorption occurs due to the large surface area of the alveoli and extensive capillary network. It is this rapid uptake of nicotine that gives the sense of satisfying a craving and that enjoyable nicotine hit many smokers crave on a regular basis. In order to visualise this, blood plasma analysis allows quantification of the amount of nicotine delivered to a person’s bloodstream against time. Using this method, it has been demonstrated in studies that when vaping freebase nicotine, the uptake of nicotine can be much slower, compared to that of conventional cigarettes. One of the hypotheses for the slower absorption rates in e-cigarettes is due to the larger particle size of vaporised nicotine, where the droplets cannot reach as deeply within the lung to be absorbed. A significant proportion of vaporised nicotine is therefore deposited on the lining of the mouth (oral mucosa) and throat where nicotine uptake is much slower. Another possibility is that the liquid droplets of propylene glycol and glycerol may negatively interact with nicotine absorption and therefore decrease the rate of absorption. New-generation devices are more effective because of the higher amount of energy delivered to the atomiser, which results in a much greater amount of liquid delivered in vaping. Where does salt-based nicotine fit in? In a study performed by PAX Labs, researchers took a series of nicotine salts and tested these for user satisfaction and blood plasma levels over time and heart rate. These salts were prepared by reacting nicotine freebase with a series of different organic acids, such as benzoic acid, pyruvate acid, lauric acid and others. O H N H O N Researchers found that when compared to nicotine freebase and a cigarette reference (Pall Mall), certain salt nicotine formulations yielded a significantly higher rate of nicotine absorption when vaped. Notably after five minutes, the two percent benzoate salt formulation was almost on par with that of a conventional cigarette and almost seven times (6.7 to be exact) that of two percent freebase nicotine. Additionally, it was found that the throat hit was notably reduced, a possible result of the acid neutralising the basicity of nicotine. Freebase Benzoate Benzoate 2% 2% 4% 0.46 0.03 0.09 0.05 0 -0.46 -0.03 -0.09 -0.05 1.5 1.54 0.08 5.67 6.02 3 9.98 1.19 8.60 11.47 5 11.65 1.70 11.44 15.06 Time (min) Pall Mall -2 *JUUL Labs Inc. On that basis, it’s thought that for those struggling to make the switch over to vaping from conventional cigarettes, nicotine salts may be a vital aid in providing a much greater level of satisfaction compared to freebase nicotine and a much more similar sensation to a traditional cigarette. VM19 | 35