N o .124 N ovember 2017 What does it mean to be human? The following is an abridged version of a talk given by Patrick Herring, Deputy Head (Academic), at the Goddard Day service: I would like to tell you about a relatively little-known Wykehamist. He was one of the most important philosophers of the late 17 th and early 18 th centuries and exerted a significant influence on European thought throughout the following centuries, laying what many now agree were the foundations for mighty Enlightenment thinkers such as Voltaire and Rousseau, as well as, among others, the German Romantics. Scholarship about him, which remained out of fashion for the best part of the 20 th century, is now being revived, in no small measure because of his relevance to the modern age. was an influential and controversial Whig politician who was in favour of the supremacy of parliament over the monarchy, as well as - in opposition to the Tories - freedom of religion: he famously supported the religious ‘Dissenters’ - at first Puritans, Calvinists, Anthony Ashley Cooper, or, as he is better known, the third Earl of Shaftesbury, was born in 1671 into a prominent political family. His grandfather, the first Earl of Shaftesbury, 1 Quakers, and later Deists. John Locke, the eminent English philosopher, was the family’s physician and advisor. He ensured that the third Earl received a strong education in the Classics and became fluent in Greek and Latin by the age of 11. Locke continued to check on Shaftesbury’s progress. When he was 12, after his grandfather’s death, he came to school at Winchester. At the time, the school was dominated by Tory sentiment, and because of his grandfather’s political reputation it seems that Shaftesbury was persecuted by his contemporaries. Other than this little is known or recorded about his time here. We know from the 1683 Long Roll that he was a ‘Gentleman Commoner’, so we can conjecture that he was probably in private lodgings in town. And, to put him into some sort of architectural context, he was here at the time when School was being built.