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regarding gender roles and norms and that the above discussed gender oppositionality theory is an outcome of androcentric forms of scriptural reasoning. As such it is possible to develop alternative conceptual relation- ships governing the nature of the masculinity- femininity dynamic that are more contextually responsive (i.e., not rooted in supposed biologi- cal determinism-based arguments) and are not premised on the logic of complementarity (i.e., oppositionality). The embracing of more dynamic views of masculinity and femininity and respective gender roles and norms would remove an important element of a patriarchal worldview, namely the idea of the ‘naturalness’ of male authority, especially in the religious and political realms. This, in turn, would have an emancipatory effect on women’s rights and would help facilitate both a worldview and a world beyond patriarchy in Muslim contexts. 3. Reconceptualization of the concept of honour itself that delinks the honour of men from the sexual or sexually-per- ceived behaviour of ‘their women-folk.’ As we saw above, the lowest common de- nominator of a patriarchal honour-based value system is the conceptual linking of male hon- our with (perceived) female sexual behaviour. In order to engender a world beyond patriar- chy, it is absolutely essential to, in the short term and at the very minimum, question the rationale behind this form of ‘honour.’ In the longer term, it is necessary to shift the very language of honour to that of individual hu- man dignity where every individual in their own right, regardless of gender, is considered a source of their own and no one else’s honour. This would, of course, require a major cultural shift in Muslim contexts that still maintain a patriarchal honour-based system of values. Fortunately, Islamic normative texts have the necessary resources to help in achieving this paradigm shift from male honour to a gender 102 W W W .T I K K U N . O R G equalitarian dignity-based system of values. 8 There are a number of scholars, activists, and organisations associated with the ideas and principles underpinning the theory of progres- sive Islam 9 working in the field of gender and Islam today, who have, over the last two to three decades, already made important theo- retical interventions in relation to the three points outlined above, myself included. I sin- cerely hope that their voices will be amplified and eventually extinguish the still dominant voices of patriarchy, especially in Muslim-ma- jority contexts. Footnotes [1] Kilmartin, Christopher. 2009. The Masculine Self. 4th Edition. New York: Sloan Publishing. [2] Martin Gilens and Benjamin I. Page, Testing Theories of American Politics: Elites, Interest Groups, and Average Citizens, Perspective on Politics, Volume 12, Issue 3 September 2014 , pp. 564-581 [3] In cases of rape, the woman is forced by her male kin to marry her rapist and thereby restore their patriarchal honour. [4] A.Duderija, Constructing a Religiously Ideal ‘Believer’ and ‘Wom- an’ in Islam: NeoTraditional Salafi and Progressive Muslim Methods of Interpretation (manahij). New York: Palgrave, 2011.; A.Duderija, The Imperatives of Progressive Islam (New York: Routledge, 2017) [5] http://womensmosque.com/about-2/ [6] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sherin_Khankan [7] Adis Duderija, “Tensions between the Study of Gender and Reli- gion The Case of Patriarchal and Non-Patriarchal Interpretations of the Islamic Tradition”, Hawwa-Journal of Women of the Middle East and the Islamic World, Volume 15, Issue 3, 2017, pp. 257—278 [8] Sachedina, Abdulaziz. Islam and Challenge of Human Rights. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008. [9] See footnote 3. DR. ADIS DUDERIJA is a lecturer in Islam and Society, in the School of Humanities, Languages and Social Science at Griffith University. His research expertise are in contemporary Islam and western Muslims identity construction. WINTER 2019