The World Explored, the World Suffered Science and tech Issue Nr. 12 November 2018(clone) - Page 17

which  is  in  his  eyes  the  most  developed  form  of  human  association.  Secondly,  there  is  a   teleological  account  in  which  the  city  provides  the  conditions  necessary  to  achieve  and   perfect  the  telos  of  man.  Participation  in  the  life  of  the  city  is  necessary  for  the   achievement  of  our  excellence  (areté)."     We  become  what  we  become  partly  because  we  are  what  we  are.  Just  as  the  animal   organ  system  is  determinative  of  the  form  of  life  the  animal  will  lead  so  it  is  with  us   human  beings.  Our  organ  system  results  in  speech  and  reason  and  a  more  complex  form   of  life  in  which  it  is  not  sufficient,  as  it  is  in  the  case  of  animals,  to  preserve  one's  life  in   accordance  with  survival  mechanisms.  The  complexity  of  our  capacities  which  build   upon  each  other  and  are  integrated  with  each  other  results  in  a  form  of  life  in  which   survival  and  preservation  are  important  but  only  because  they  are  necessary  conditions   of  a  natural  striving  which  human  beings  possess  to  lead  the  good  life,  the  flourishing   life.  In  the  course  of  the  use  of  these  capacities,  truth  becomes  an  important  aspect  of   speech  because  truthfulness  is  important  for  the  political  animal  leading  his  political  life.   Here  the  truth  function  of  language  will  obviously  be  integrated  with  the  communicative   and  expressive  forms  of  language  we  encounter  in  political  discussions.  The  life  of  a  city-­‐ state,  then,  for  Aristotle  is  not  an  arbitrary  conventional  construction  brought  about  by   the  linear  causal  mechanisms  of  science  but  rather  a  matter  of  Logos,  a  matter  of  logic.   There  is  a  logical  relation  between  Logos  and  the  political  form  of  life  expressed  thus  by   Smith:     "Man  is  a  political  animal  because  of  Logos-­‐-­‐his  speech  and  reason.  These  capacities   provide  us  with  a  freedom  not  possessed  by  animals.  He  is  not  making  a  causal  claim  to   the  effect  that  Logos  causes  the  political  life.  Logos,  for  example  also  entails  the  power  to   know  which  includes  the  ability  to  recognize  by  sight  the  inhabitants  of  our  polis.  We   share  a  common  language  of  the  just  and  the  unjust.  Logos  also  entails  the  power  of   love-­‐-­‐we  love  those  with  whom  we  are  intimately  related.  Love  does  not  occur  as  the   result  of  a  calculation.  Rather  it  is  the  case  that  affection  sympathy  and  friendship  are   the  grounds  of  our  political  life.  It  is  these  which  make  us  fully  human."     There  is  no  problem  (as  there  may  be  for  the  traditional  truth-­‐conditions  theorist   position)for  Aristotle  insofar  as  the  meaning  of  political  discourse  is  concerned.Both   hypothetical  and  categorical  imperatives  will  have  a  prescriptive  meaning  which  will  be   logically  analyzable  in  the  same  way  in  which  we  can  logically  analyze  descriptive   statements.  For  Aristotle  there  will  be  no  fundamental  difference  between  the   syllogisms  "All  men  are  mortal,  Socrates  is  a  man,  therefore  Socrates  is  mortal"  and   "Promises  ought  to  be  kept,  Jack  promised  Jill  he  would  pay  the  money  he  owed  her  as   promised,  therefore  he  ought  to  pay  the  money  back."       The  reference  to  the  Heraclitean  terms  Logos  and  Love  may  signify  that  Aristotle   regards  Parmenides(Plato's  choice)  as  an  extreme  and  Heraclitus  as  a  position  to  use  in   order  to  navigate  between  two  conflicting  extremes.  Another  sign  in  support  of  this   position  is  the  fact  that  Aristotle's  Metaphysics  sees  as  one  of  its  major  tasks  to  provide  a   theory  of  change  which  of  course  is  also  some  kind  of  acknowledgment  of  the   Parmenidean  objection  that  there  must  be  something  which  endures  through  change.  In   the  political  discourse  that  which  we  praise  and  that  which  we  blame  will  give  us  the   keys  to  what  is  just  and  what  is  unjust.  Here  we  are  clearly  in  the  realm  of  not  just  what   is  true  and  false  but  also  in  the  realm  of  what  it  is  that  we  prescribe  in  our