The World Explored, the World Suffered Science and tech Issue Nr. 11 October 2018(clone) - Page 26

through the work of Wittgenstein could understand Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Spinoza, Kant and all British Philosophy in greater depth. He demonstrated that philosophical texts are not atoms or particles in the cultural world but something more akin to living, breathing beings working together to build and maintain our culture in accordance with holistic principles. Man is a curious being, ladies and gentlemen: he has intuition, intuition for the connection of things and the relation of parts to a whole. He is, as Professor Heidegger so perceptively maintained: a being for whom his very being is an issue. Heidegger also believed that the philosophical issue of the nature of his own existence was being addressed by the poets and their writings. The poets words, ladies and gentlemen are drawn up very carefully, and with great effort, from the well of suffering-­‐ not only the well of their own suffering but also the very deep well of the suffering of the world. To fully understand the cathartic effect of the poet’s words we may need to recall Dr. Sutton’s lecture which referred to the Copernican Revolution of the work of the later Wittgenstein which in his words “shed the philosophical light of the sun on the role of language in our understanding of the world and each other.” T S Eliot had the following to say about some cathartic uses of language: “…..Words strain, Crack and sometimes break, under the burden Under the tension, slip, slide, perish Decay with imprecision, will not stay in place Will not stay still. Shrieking voices Scolding, mocking, or merely chattering Always assail them. The Word in the desert Is most attacked by voices of temptation The crying shadow in the funeral dance The loud lament of the disconsolate chimera.” You may guess to whom these shrieking voices belong. Partly, to the manipulators of our diminishing dolls whose language has been atomized to the point at which one no longer cares for humanity in the way the religious man, the poet or the philosopher care. Consequences are not arguments, ladies and gentlemen. The consequences of medical science are indeed valuable but it is important to note that they are the result of the deep cultural process, which, in spite of the scientific method, inhabits the habitats of the universities. In relation to this deep cultural process we intuit the purpose of “Another cause of revolution is difference of races which do not at once acquire a common spirit: for a state is not the growth of a day, anymore than it grows out of a multitude brought together by accident. Hence the reception of strangers in colonies, either at the time of their foundation or afterwards, has generally produced revolution.”1303a25-29 “Revolutions also break out when opposite parties , e.g. the rich and the people are equally balanced and there is little or no middle class: for, if either party were manifestly superior the other would not risk an attack upon them. And for this reason, those who are eminent in excellence usually do not stir up insurrections, being always a minority. Such in general are the beginnings and causes of disturbances and revolution to which every form of government is liable” 1304b 1-6 This is a comprehensive list of causes. We can safely assume that Aristotle’s investigations of over 150 constitutions together with historical evolution of these constitutions played a large role in the compiling of this list. D W Ross summarises the preventatives of revolutions in the following words: “The preventatives of revolution are next considered. The most important thing is to maintain the spirit of obedience to law especially in small matters: the beginnings of change must be watched for. The second rule is not tto rely upon devices for deceiving the people, which are proved by experience to be useless. Further both aristocracies and oligarchies may last, not from any inherent stability in the constitution but because the rulers are on good terms with their subjects, never wronging the ambitious in a matter of honour nor the common people in the matter of money but introducing the leading spirits to a share in rule and adapting to some extreme democratic institutions. The ruler should always keep before his people the danger of foreign attack and should if necessary invent dangers to alarm them.” (p270) This last reference to “invented lies” appears to contravene the earlier advice relating to the uselessness of deception: a very un -Aristotelian and Machiavellian recommendation.. The term “revolution” suggests a circular process in which the process returns to its beginning point in order to begin the process anew. It suggests a kind of evolution with the emphasis upon a change in the quality of life in the state that undergoes it: a change in which freedom from oppression is experienced. T S Eliot’s words: “And at the end of all of our exploration we will arrive at the beginning and know the place for the first time.” indicates also an increase in knowledge as a consequence of the revolutionary journey. Hannah Arendt in her work “On Revolution” discusses the term “revolution” in relation to religious change in particular the “Reformation” which she ɕɑ́́ѡѡɽ́Օѥѡɥ䁅ѡ)ѡɽ́́ɕЁȁѡɥ丁QɕIͥɕٽѥ́ݕЁȁ役ѡ)հѡ͕́ȁՉɵѥѡЁݔݥѹ͕ѡ͔1ѡȸQ́ȁɕЁ݅)ѡ܁ɄѡɄ͕ձɥͅѥѡЁݽձͼݸѡȁհɕٽѥ́Ս́ѡ)%ɥIٽѥ)QݽɐqɕٽѥtݕٕȰ́Յ䁅ͽѕݥѠ٥ѡ́ɕЁɡ́ѡ٥)ɕٽѥѡЁɽՍͽѡЀݱɕٕȁȁɥѥ݅́ѡ)ɥɕٽѥ)Qѥхєɝѡ́Ʉ͕ձɥͅѥɡ́ѡ䁥́ѥЁͥɥٕ́ɑЁ́Ѽ)ݡѡȁݔɔݥѠՍɔѡЁݥ٥ٔѼѡɔȁѡѥѡЁݥٽٔ)Ѽхѕ́ȁٽٔѼչ($4