The World Explored, the World Suffered Education Issue Nr. 8 July 2018 - Page 8

What we are, could never be returned or reduced to primeval stardust. This is the source of the ancient idea of the immortality of the soul, itself, related to the Platonic forms which exist sub specie aeternitatis: timelessly. In that handful of dust is our human relations, the relation of one soul to another or the relation of a soul to his community. Skeptics are clever. In dismantling the relation we have to each other they will pretend to believe in the certainty of our private consciousness or sentience, which no one by definition could ever publicly define. They will ask what it is we actually know about other people and we will be forced to answer that what we know of others is based on the behavior we see. I infer, on the grounds of their possessing bodies, which seem the same as mine, that their behavior is connected to my consciousness or sentience in the same way as mine. This is the so- called famous argument from analogy. Other people possess consciousness or sentience by analogy. I can never see anyone’s pain only infer it. And here the skeptic makes his match- winning move. Surely he argues, someone can be behaving as if they are in pain and not be in pain at all. That’s how much we know! And surely, he again argues someone can be in an enormous amount of pain but, being the true Spartan they are, they show the world nothing of the pain. That is how much we know, the skeptic claims, triumphantly. Well, Ladies and gentlemen we should not be overly impressed with these snippets of philosophical drama. All the argument shows is that the existence of the world and other souls are not to be characterized in epistemological terms. They are not, in other words, problems of knowledge. We do know of the existence of others, and the criteria of us knowing what we do know, is how they behave, what they say etc. Of course the metaphysical status of this physical and linguistic behavior is a critical philosophical problem and it is part of how we know that someone is in pain. And someone being in pain, the suffering soul, ladies and gentlemen is one of the key phenomena that ethics needs to deal with. But before we take up this issue let us talk abou Ё±…ΉΥ…”Έ]”½‰Ω₯½ΥΝ±δΝ•”Ν½΅•Ρ‘₯Ήœ…Μ)Ν½΅•Ρ‘₯Ήœέ‘•Έέ”Ν•”•ΙΡ…₯ΈΑ‘εΝ₯…°΅½Ω•΅•ΉΡ́½˜„΅…»Šé™…”…ΉΡ‘”Ν½ΥΉ‘”•΅₯ΡΜ)…́„έ₯Ή”½˜Α…₯ΈΈ]‘•Ι”‘½•ΜΡ‘₯́…‰₯±₯Ρ䁍½΅”™Ι½΄ό=Ή”Ν՝•ΝΡ₯½Έ₯́ё…ЁݔΝ•”)Ν½΅•Ρ‘₯Ήœ…́ͽ΅•Ρ‘₯Ήœ‰•…ΥΝ”έ”…Ι”±…ΉΥ…”΄ΥΝ•ΙΜ°…Ή₯Ё₯́„΅…©½Θ™ΥΉΡ₯½Έ½˜)±…ΉΥ…”₯ΈΩ₯ΙΡΥ”½˜₯Ρ́Α½ΝΝ•ΝΝ₯Ήœ„ΝΥ‰©•ΠΑΙ•‘₯…Ρ”ΝΡΙՍΡΥΙ”°ΡΌΝ…δΝ½΅•Ρ‘₯Ήœ…‰½ΥΠ)Ν½΅•Ρ‘₯ΉœΈQ‘₯́ΡΙ…ΉΝ±…ѕ́•Ω•ΉΡΥ…±±δ₯ΉΡΌΡ‘½Υ‘Ё…Ή₯ΈΩ₯ΙΡΥ”½˜Ρ‘₯́±₯ΉΥ₯ΝΡ₯Œ…Α…₯Ρδέ”)…ΈΡ‘₯Ή¬Ν½΅•Ρ‘₯Ήœ…‰½ΥЁͽ΅•Ρ‘₯ΉœΈQ‘”…Α…₯Ρ䁅±ΝΌΡΙ…ΉΝ™½Ι΅Μ½Υȁ…Ή₯΅…°±₯­”)Α•Ι•ΑΡ₯½Έ₯ΉΡΌΡ‘”΅½Ι”‘Υ΅…Έ™½Ι΄₯Έέ‘₯ Ν•”Ν½΅•Ρ‘₯Ήœ…́ͽ΅•Ρ‘₯Ήœ°™½Θ•α…΅Α±”°$)Ν•”Ρ‘½Ν”Α‘εΝ₯…°΅½Ω•΅•ΉΡ́…ΉΡ‘…Ёͽչ…́„έ₯Ή”½˜Α…₯ΈΈΉ‘•Ι”έ”‘…Ω”Ρ‘”±…Ρ•Θ)A‘₯±½Ν½Α‘䁽˜]₯Ρѝ•ΉΝΡ•₯Έ½Ω•ΙΡΥΙΉ₯ΉœΡ‘”•…Ι±₯•Θ°…ΉΑΙ½‘Ս₯Ήœέ‘…Ё‘…́‰••ΈΙ•™•ΙΙ•ΡΌ)…́ё”]₯Ρѝ•ΉΝΡ•₯Ή₯…Έ ½Α•ΙΉ₯…ΈΙ•Ω½±ΥΡ₯½ΈΈ±°A‘₯±½Ν½Α‘₯…°ΑΙ½‰±•΅Μ°]₯Ρѝ•ΉΝΡ•₯ΈΉ½ά)…ɝՕ̰…Έ‰”Ι•Ν½±Ω•‰δ₯ΉΩ•ΝΡ₯…Ρ₯ΉœΡ‘”Α‘₯±½Ν½Α‘₯…°½Θ…́‘”…±±Μ₯ЁΙ…΅΅…Ρ₯…°)ΝΡΙՍΡΥΙ”½˜½Υȁ±…ΉΥ…”Έ)1…ΉΥ…”‘½•ΜΉ½Π‘₯͝Υ₯Ν”Ρ‘½Υ‘Π°₯Ё΅…Ή₯™•ΝΡ́ё½Υ‘Πθ΅%˜έ”έ½Υ±½Ή±δ‘₯Ν•Ή…”Ρ‘”)Ν­•ΑΡ₯…°…Ή‘½΅…Ρ₯ŒΩ½₯•Μέ₯Ρ‘₯ΈΎ™½Θ„΅½΅•ΉΠ…ΉΥΉ‘•ΙΝΡ…Ήέ‘…Ёё•Ι”₯́Ρ