The World Explored, the World Suffered Education Issue Nr. 8 July 2018 - Page 3

The second lecture which will appear in the next volume of the trilogy of lectures is entitled “The History of Psychology: Freud and Observationalism”. It is the final lecture in the series of the History of Psychology and its focus is Psychology in the twentieth century: The twentieth century, it is maintained, was largely obsessed by observationalist assumptions and reactions to observationalism such as behaviourism. Initially upon the declaration of independence, the definition of Psychology accepted by many leading researchers was “The science of consciousness” but it was then discovered that consciousness could not be observed and could not, therefore, fit into the theoretical scientific framework of being manipulated or measured as an experimental variable. The “scientific” response to this was to redefine Psychology as the “science of behaviour” and this move merely further reduced the circumference of the investigative circle and much that was of interest in the Philosophy of man was ignored. Freud’s theory is characterised as contesting the above obsession in favour of a more holistic approach: At the same time the medical model, operating in what Brett called the technological therapeutic mode was emphasizing a moral treatment of patients that demanded that the Doctor listen to his patients both for the purposes of diagnosis and for the purposes of treatment. This ethical focus was probably a consequence of the need of Psychiatry and Psychoanalysis to view humans holistically if the practical problem of restoring man to health was to be solved. Freud’s initial training was in the Physiology of the brain. This was complemented with a medical training because, as a Jew, he could not look forward to a well- paid research position at Vienna University. Both of these largely theoretical educations proved to be inadequate to solve the kind of problem Freud was faced with in private practice. He was forced to resort creatively and experimentally to various “technologies” such as hypnotism in order to address the complex symptoms of his patients. But Freud was also a man of culture and we know he was familiar with the writings of Kant and this perhaps prevented him from engaging in the various forms of quackery that was a sign of the times. Paradoxically it was probably Platonic, Aristotelian and Kantian Metaphysics and Transcendental Philosophy that turned this Physician into a leading figure on the world stage in the 20th century. The twentieth century is also the century of the testing of the child and personality and quantitative techniques supplemented observationalism and ithe nstrumentalism of sociologically oriented theories(Marx etc). Sutton concludes in the following manner: The overall impression of Peters is that during the 20th century there emerged a proliferation of “schools” of Psychol 䁅ɅѥѡȁɕЁյѥ́ȁݥѠɕ)ѡ́ȁݥѠɕЁ́ѡЁѡ́́͵ɔɥѕѼݡ)ͽ́ɕɐ́ѡqՅͥtѡՉ