The World Explored, the World Suffered Education Issue Nr. 8 July 2018 - Page 2

Editorial: 8 th Issue June 30 th 2018 Blog: http://michaelrdjames.org/ Journal site: https://www.aletheiaeducation.eu/ The first lecture is entitled “The Third Centrepiece lecture on The Philosophy of Education” and it is the third lecture given by Jude Sutton, one of the main characters in the recently published Philosophical/educational novel “The World Explored, the World Suffered: The Exeter lectures”. The lecture explores ethics and language from the point of view of the philosophy of education in partly Kantian and partly Wittgensteinian terms. Sutton claims that the epistemological view of our souls and the world bears the responsibility for much of the confusion in what are essentially metaphysical areas: areas where philosophical principles are operating. A particular view of Language and Psychology follows from Sutton’s approach: But before we take up this issue let us talk about language. We obviously see something as something when we see certain physical movements of a man’s face and the sound he emits as a wince of pain. Where does this ability come from? One suggestion is that we see something as something because we are language- users, and it is a major function of language in virtue of its possessing a subject predicate structure, to say something about something. This translates eventually into thought and in virtue of this linguistic capacity we can think something about something. The capacity also transforms our animal like perception into the more human form in which see something as something, for example, I see those physical movements and that sound as a wince of pain. And here we have the later Philosophy of Wittgenstein overturning the earlier, and producing what has been referred to as the Wittgensteinian Copernican revolution. All Philosophical problems , Wittgenstein now argues, can be resolved by investigating the philosophical or as he calls it grammatical structure of our language.” An examination of Charles Stevensons theory of ethical language gives rise to a comparison between the language uses in the areas of aesthetics and ethics and Sutton ends up with the following analysis: Now it is important to realize the difference between an ethical judgment about what is good in the world of action, and an aesthetic judgment about what is good in the world of fashion and taste, in which the winds of change blow our taste first in one direction and then in another. In the language game of aesthetic judgment we concern ourselves with things such as strawberries and raspberries and how things appear rather than what they are in themselves. Any imperative or ought –judgment in the aesthetic language-game does not relate to our obligations to do something but rather to our desires for pleasure and happiness. Ethical obligations, on the other hand, do not arise from how the world appears to us to be, but rather from how it ought to be for everyone.