The World Explored, the World Suffered Education Issue Nr. 8 July 2018 - Page 16

proved to be inadequate to solve the kind of problem Freud was faced with in private practice. He was forced to resort creatively and experimentally to various “technologies” such as hypnotism in order to address the complex symptoms of his patients. But Freud was also a man of culture and we know he was familiar with the writings of Kant and this perhaps prevented him from engaging in the various forms of quackery that was a sign of the times. Paradoxically it was probably Platonic, Aristotelian and Kantian Metaphysics and Transcendental Philosophy that turned this Physician into a leading figure on the world stage in the 20th century. Popularly, he became famous for his idea of “the unconscious” but this was probably only one of a number of innovative concepts he formed in his 50 years of theorizing. Ernest Jones, Brett points out, thought very highly of the Freudian distinction between the primary and secondary process of the mind working in accordance with different principles: the pleasure-pain principle and the reality principle respectively. Freud’s background in Physiology and Biology led him to formulate a theoretical idea of “instinct” and this together, in turn, with his philosophical interests enabled him to construct a complex hylomorphic concept of instinct as constituted of the elements of “aim”, “object” and “source”. This complexity was of course not appreciated when criticism of his thesis of the sexual aetiology of neurosis became almost universally accepted. The more superficial ideas of an organism being merely a bundle of instincts gained much traction at the beginning of the 20th century. In his seminal work, “The Interpretation of Dreams” Freud published the results of his adventures of reflection into the realm of wish-fulfilment which reads very differently to his other more technical works where we are clearly in the realm of action. The Interpretation of dreams is almost like a hermeneutic work of interpretation operating on a mythical world, except for the famous chapter 7 on the psychical apparatus that brings us back into the real world of action. In Kantian terms dreams are phenomena that happen to us and are distinct from the things we choose to do, and there is no obvious route for Kant from the realm of fantasy to the realm of the real world. ɕՐѡЁɕ́ɔѡɽ兰ɽѼѡչ͍́)ݡЁ䁽́ɥѥ́Ѽ͕́ѡЁѡɽ́ѡѡȁɕѥѼѡ)ݽɱɕ䁅ѥɕՓéݽɬՅ䁅́́Ѽɹ䁽ѡ)ɽѥѡ͔ݼɕЃqѥϊtѡ=ȁ́ѡȁ)ݕѡ䁽ѡɥɽ́ձͽͥѥݥ͠ձЁ)ᥕ䁅ѡ́䁥́٥ͱɽѥQɅЁѡͽ)եЁ́ɕѥ́Ѽɕ͕Օ́́хɬQ͔ɔ) ɕӊéݽɑ+q!ݕٕȰݡѕٕȁѡɥЁͽЁ͍ɥѥȁՍ́ݡɕՐ)ѡɥɽ͕̰ɕՐͅ܁ɱѡЁѡɕեɔɕЁͽЁ)͍ɥѥɽѡЁݡݔٔȁɽ͕́ѥ́)əɵ̸ȁݔѡ͔ѕɵ́ѡ́ݡٔ)ѡȁɵѥЁ́Ѽ̰ݡ́չȁձ́䁅)ɽɥѕ̸QЁȁѼəɴͽЁٔɅͅ)ѥѥѕɹɕ䰁Ʌѥ̸MՍхɑ)ɔѡɽՍЁٕ́ѥхѥ͍́ɥхѥ)Q́ɥѕݥ͑́ɽɅѥѼɅѥ́ݡЁɕՐ)ѡ͕ɽ͕́ѼٕЁѡѥѥѡ)éݥ͠ѼɅ͙ɵѼɕͽȁѥ́Ѽٔ