The World Explored, the World Suffered Education Issue Nr. 8 July 2018 - Page 10

disagreements in attitude have no logical relation to facts. Well I am sure, ladies and gentlemen, that disagreements in attitude have a conceptual and therefore logical connection to facts. β€œMurder is wrong” not just because I disapprove of it and urge you to do so, but for good philosophical reasons, and our individual happiness is only marginally involved in the point of the language game we play with ethics. Stevenson is wrong in insisting that a disagreement in attitude occurs when we agree about the facts. True, we might agree that A killed B on the basis of medical criteria relating to the occurrence of the event of death. But some would doubt that we agree with the murderer over the judgment β€œMurder is wrong” especially in those cases where the murder is premeditated. Aristotle claims that we all aim in our actions at the good. In an instrumental sense the murderer sees his action as the achievement of an instrumentally structured goal. But, for the sake of a complete argument, were this the only structure by which to judge the value of the action of murder we would as a practical consequence be living in a state of nature and ±₯Ω₯ΉœΡ‘”­₯Ή½˜±₯™”!½‰‰•Μ)‘•ΝΙ₯‰•…́ͽ±₯Ρ…Ι䰁Α½½Θ°Ή…ΝΡ䰁‰ΙΥΡ₯Ν °…ΉΝ‘½ΙΠ聁݅ȁ½˜…±°……₯ΉΝЁ…±°ΈQ‘”‘₯™™•Ι•Ή”₯Έ)Ρ‘”©Υ‘₯ΉœΑΙ½•‘Υɕ́₯ΈΡ‘•Ν”ΡέΌ…͕́₯́ё…Ё₯ΈΡ‘”™₯ΙΝЁ…Ν”°έ”…Ι”½Ή•ΙΉ•έ₯Ρ Ρ‘”)‘₯™™•Ι•Ή”‰•Ρέ••ΈΡ‘”₯ΉΝΡΙΥ΅•ΉΡ…°Ω…±Υ”½˜Ρ‘”…‘₯•Ω•΅•ΉΡ́½˜΅δ±₯™”΅½…±Μ…ΉΡ‘”)‘…ΑΑ₯Ή•Ν́½˜΅δ±₯™”…Ή₯ΈΡ‘”Ν•½Ή…Ν”έ₯Ρ Ρ‘”…Ρ•½Ι₯…°Ω…±Υ”΅©Υ‘΅•ΉΠ½˜Ρ‘”Ν…΅”)…Ρ₯½ΈΈQ‘•Ν”°έ‘•ΈΝΥ‰΅₯ΡΡ•ΡΌΡ‘”ΑΙ…Ρ₯…°Ι•…Ν½Ή₯ΉœΑΙ½•Ν́½˜-…ΉΣŠé…Ρ•½Ι₯…°)₯΅Α•Ι…Ρ₯Ω”έ½Υ±…ΙΙ₯Ω”…Ёё”±½₯…°½ΉΝ•ΕΥ•Ή”Ρ‘…ΠƒŠq=Ή”½Υ‘ЁΉ½ΠΡΌ΅ΥΙ‘•ΛŠt°‰•…ΥΝ”)Ρ‘”ΥΉ₯Ω•ΙΝ…°±…܁©ΥΝΡ₯™₯•ΜΡ‘”ƒŠq5ΥΙ‘•Θ₯́έΙ½ΉŸŠt©Υ‘΅•ΉΠΈ$…΄Ν…ε₯Ήœ±…‘₯•Μ…Ή•ΉΡ±•΅•Έ)Ρ‘…Ёݑ•Έέ”Ν…δΡ‘…ΠƒŠq΅ΥΙ‘•Θ₯́έΙ½ΉŸŠtΡ‘₯́₯́…΅½ΉΝЁ½Ρ‘•ΘΡ‘₯ΉΜ„™₯ΙΝЁ΅½Ω”₯Έ„)±…ΉΥ…”…΅”₯Έέ‘₯ έ”Α±…”„Ι•ΝΑ½ΉΝ₯‰₯±₯Ρ䁽ΈΡ‘”‘•…ɕȁѼ…ΑΑΙ½Ω”°ΡΌ…‘½ΑЁё”)½ΙΙ•Π…ΡΡ₯ΡΥ‘”Έ]”…Ι”Ή½Π₯ΉΩ₯Ρ₯Ήœ½Υȁ₯ΉΡ•Ι±½ΥѽȁѼ„‘•‰…Ρ”…‰½ΥЁё”½Ή•ΑЁ½˜΅ΥΙ‘•ΘΈ)9½ά₯Ё₯́₯΅Α½ΙΡ…ΉΠΡΌΙ•…±₯锁ё”‘₯™™•Ι•Ή”‰•Ρέ••Έ…Έ•Ρ‘₯…°©Υ‘΅•ΉΠ…‰½ΥЁݑ…Ё₯́½½)₯ΈΡ‘”έ½Ι±½˜…Ρ₯½Έ°…Ή…Έ…•ΝΡ‘•Ρ₯Œ©Υ‘΅•ΉΠ…‰½ΥЁݑ…Ё₯́½½₯ΈΡ‘”έ½Ι±½˜™…Ν‘₯½Έ)…ΉΡ…ΝΡ”°₯Έέ‘₯ Ρ‘”έ₯Ή‘́½˜‘…Ή”‰±½ά½ΥȁхΝΡ”™₯ΙΝЁ₯Έ½Ή”‘₯Ι•Ρ₯½Έ…ΉΡ‘•Έ₯Έ)…Ή½Ρ‘•ΘΈ%ΈΡ‘”±…ΉΥ…”…΅”½˜…•ΝΡ‘•Ρ₯Œ©Υ‘΅•ΉΠέ”½Ή•ΙΈ½ΥΙΝ•±Ω•Μέ₯Ρ Ρ‘₯ΉΜΝՍ …Μ)ΝΡΙ…έ‰•ΙΙ₯•Μ…ΉΙ…ΝΑ‰•ΙΙ₯•Μ…Ή‘½άΡ‘₯ΉΜ…ΑΑ•…ȁɅё•ΘΡ‘…Έέ‘…Ёё•δ…Ι”₯ΈΡ‘•΅Ν•±Ω•ΜΈ)Ήδ₯΅Α•Ι…Ρ₯Ω”½Θ½Υ‘ΠƒŠM©Υ‘΅•ΉΠ₯ΈΡ‘”…•ΝΡ‘•Ρ₯Œ±…ΉΥ…”΅…΅”‘½•ΜΉ½ΠΙ•±…Ρ”ΡΌ½ΥΘ)½‰±₯…Ρ₯½ΉΜΡΌ‘ΌΝ½΅•Ρ‘₯Ήœ‰ΥЁɅё•ΘΡΌ½Υȁ‘•Ν₯ɕ́™½ΘΑ±•…ΝΥΙ”…Ή‘…ΑΑ₯Ή•ΝΜΈΡ‘₯…°)½‰±₯…Ρ₯½ΉΜ°½ΈΡ‘”½Ρ‘•Θ‘…Ή°‘ΌΉ½Π…Ι₯Ν”™Ι½΄‘½άΡ‘”έ½Ι±…ΑΑ•…ΊѼΎѼ‰”°‰ΥЁɅё•Θ)™Ι½΄‘½ά₯Ё½Υ‘ЁѼ‰”™½Θ•Ω•Ιε½Ή”Έ)Q‘”…Ι••΅•ΉΠΙ•±…Ρ₯ΉœΡΌΡ‘”©Υ‘΅•ΉΠƒŠq5ΥΙ‘•Θ₯́έΙ½ΉŸŠt₯́΅…Ή‘…Ρ½Ι丁]‘…Ёё…Ё΅•…ΉΜ₯Μ)Ρ‘…Ё₯˜ε½Τ‘ΌΉ½Π…Ι•”°ε½Τ…Ι”½΅ΑΙ½΅₯Ν₯Ήœε½ΥȁɅΡ₯½Ή…±₯Ρδ₯ΈΡ‘”έ‘½±”ΝΑ‘•Ι”½˜΅½Ι…°)Ω…±Υ”©Υ‘΅•ΉΠΈQ‘”…‘Ω•ΙΡ₯Ν•΅•ΉΠ½˜ΝՍ „Α‘•Ή½΅•Ή½Έ½˜‘₯Ν…Ι••΅•ΉΠ₯Έ„έ½Ι±™₯±±•)έ₯Ρ Ρ‘”Ή½₯Ν”½˜…‘Ω•ΙΡ₯Ν•΅•ΉΡ́₯́₯ΉΡ•ΙΑΙ•Ρ•‰δΑ•½Α±”έ‘ΌΥΉ‘•ΙΝΡ…ΉΡ‘”έ½Ι­₯ΉΜ½˜)ΑΙ…Ρ₯…°Ι•…Ν½Έ…́‰•₯Ήœ₯Ή‘₯…Ρ₯Ω”½˜Ρ‘”…₯΅±•Ν́݅Ή‘•Ι₯ΉΜ½˜„ΝΡΙ…Ή•Θ₯ΈΡ‘”Α½±₯́½˜)½½•Ρ‘₯…°…Ρ₯½ΈΈA•Ι‘…ΑΜ°₯Ё΅₯‘Ё‰”ΝΥΙ΅₯Ν•°ΝՍ „ΝΡΙ…Ή•Θ₯́½Ή™ΥΝ₯Ήœέ‘…Ё₯Μ)…•ΝΡ‘•Ρ₯Œέ₯Ρ έ‘…Ё₯́•Ρ‘₯…°ΈMՍ „ΝΡΙ…Ή•Θ₯́½Ή™ΥΝ₯ΉœΡ‘”…ΑΑ•…Ι…Ή”έ₯Ρ έ‘…Ё₯́ɕ…°Έ) ΥЁ…±°½˜Ρ‘₯́₯́ͽ΅•έ‘…Ё½‰ΝΥΙ”ΥΉ±•Ν́ͽ΅”…½ΥΉΠ₯́₯Ω•Έ½˜Ρ‘”Ι₯Ρ•Ι₯„$‘…Ω”‰••Έ)Ρ…±­₯Ήœ…‰½ΥΠΈ]‘…Ё…Ι”Ρ‘•δό]•±°°±…‘₯•Μ…Ή•ΉΡ±•΅•Έ$‰•±₯•Ω”Ρ‘…Ёё•δ…Ι”-…ΉΡ₯…Έ€ΉQ‘”)™₯ΙΝЁΙ₯Ρ•Ι₯½Έ₯́½Ή•ΑΡΥ…°ΥΉ₯Ω•ΙΝ…±₯Ρ䰁€Ή”Έ₯˜Ν½΅•Ρ‘₯Ήœ₯́Ѽ‰”½Ή•ΑΡΥ…±₯镐…́΅ΥΙ‘•Θ₯Π