The World Explored, the World Suffered Education Issue Nr. 6 May 2018 - Page 8

History would not exist were it not for negation. A historical event must surely be something which is not happening now…” A History Major raised their hand: “And yet we do sometimes say of important events that are happening now “This will be a historical event.” “Yes and the “will be” in your formulation demonstrates this point: we need to move on in time so the event will be a past event before it can be considered a historical event. But we can see from the “Pierre is not in the café” example that at least insofar as the material reality of the café is concerned not everything is possible. It is not possible for Pierre to be there in the café when he is clearly not. All this sounds very abstract but is actually a demonstration of the role of reason in knowledge of reality. We naively believe in reality and the above are the arguments for our so -called naïve belief. The above are the theoretical reasons for believing that Pierre is not in the cafe. We also have practical reasons for performing the actions we do and some of these fall into the category of “the ought” and some fall into the category of “the is”. If I think to myself Pierre ought to be here in the café and I take action in going to fetch him, then I make it true that Pierre is in the café. Husserl inspired both Sartre’s and Merleau- Ponty’s existentialism. The Kantian world of ideal concepts and idealizations rests on what Husserl calls the life-world, which has an aesthetic, perceptive character. If we are to know what motion is, for example, we must have an experience of it. It is this experience that is the source of all science and philosophy. Merleau-Ponty extends this thinking and argues that the living body is at the source of all experience. He claims that the body does not use theoretical or practical knowledge but rather is an awareness ݕȁѼхѡ̸Q)́ѡչ䁉ݕձ䁙ѡ՝ЁЁɕ䰁ѡЁɕ䁥͕)ѡЁ̰Ё́٥Յͥѡȁѡ́Ё́ͼѡqtݡ)ɕ̰͕ͅѥ́ɍѥ́ɔѕQٕ䰁5ɱԵA䁅ɝՕ̰)ЁѡѥЁɥ́ͅѡմݡɕєѡݡ)Ʌѡȁձѕ́ȁݡЁMɔqѡѥѽхtݡЁ́ѡхͬ)AѼչ)Q́Յ́Ё͕ͥЁͥ́ɕѼ͕Ё)́Ё́ɅѡȁչՔݡݡݽɐѡ́́ͥѥѕ)ɕ́ɕЁɕ͔́ٔɕЁ́5ɱԴ)Aé́ѡЁՅ́ɔѥٔɅѡͥٔ)ɕɕ͕хѥȁѕѕȸQ݅䁥ݡݔ܁ݡЁݔɔ)ٕ䁑ɕЁѼѡ݅䁥ݡݔ܁ѡЁѡɅ́́ɕݥݡЁ)́Ёѡȁѡ͕́مѥɴ݅ɕ̤ѡ՝ٕѡ)ѕȁѕᅵѡɅ́ɕѡեѥɅ́)ѡݽɑ́ݥЁѡͥ́́)ɱȁѡɔ͕ɥ́$ɕɕѼѡ!ѽ䁽A卡䁅͍́)ɅѥѼ͕مѥɥх͍Ёх͡)Յѥхѥٔɕѥ́͡ݕمɥ̸$Ё܁ͥЁ݅́Ѽ)ՍѡѼյ́ɥхͥՅѥ̸1ЁɅє䁵