The World Explored, the World Suffered Education Issue Nr. 6 May 2018 - Page 15

the empirical scientific method, however, was certainly not in accordance with the Kantian Copernican revolution. Indeed Brett’s description of Herbart’s account of the relation between consciousness and its ideas cannot fail to remind one of what is later to come in the name of phenomenology: “Phenomena are in perpetual flux: in other words, the most obvious thing about consciousness is its perpetual tendency to change: even though we try to retain one presentation, it slowly dwindles in our grasp. This general fact gives Herbart his starting point. By an idea we mean the outstanding point, the summit or peak on the surface of an ever heaving-consciousness. If we imagine a light shining on a sea of rising and falling waves, the analogy may assist us to grasp Herbart’s conception of “arches” and “summits”. Every single idea travels, as it were, on the path of a semi- circle, from a point below the level of consciousness upward to its zenith: it then goes down again and gives place to another. This process continually goes on: it is the business of psychology to find its laws.”(Brett) The problem with Herbart’s active conception of the soul is that “the only active quality ascribed to the soul is the tendency to preserve itself”. And with this thought, Herbart’s reflections move away from phenomenology and back to the basics of science: consciousness and the expenditure of energy of the organism. This energy regulation principle, already present by implication in Aristotle’s reflections on the soul was to be later used in Freud’s Scientific Project. Freud, of course, abandoned this attempt to reduce the qualitative to the quantitative in his later theorizing. Herbart interestingly also claimed: “to have provided a psychology especially applicable to education.It was the interest in mental growth and in the union of right thinking with the right feeling that led Herbart to understand how closely the qualities of character depend on the complete fusion of knowing and feeling in one indivisible state of mind, evolving into the kind of clearness which is only attainable through self-expressing actions.” The essential feature of mental growth is characterized in terms of apperception. or the Kantian “I think” or the “I will” but the “I” of consciousness is still characterized in terms of scientific Psychology. He applied these id ́Ѽѡ́Ёѕѡ)-ѥ́ɕͽɕ٥ݥѠAѼѡЁѡѕ)ѡչ䁑ѕɵ́ѡѕɅЁɅѕȁѡ٥Յ)MՕȁ́ѡЁ-ѥݡٕ́ѡ͕Ѽѡݥ́)ѕɵ́ѡA卡ЁݥձЁѼ+q́ͽɕѡqQ͕tѼѡɝʹMՕ)ɕ́ЁѼѡ٥хɕͥЁѡɝͷt!́٥܁́ѡ́)ݡɔЁ́Ёɕ䁵хͥݡɽ́́ݸɥ䁡)ѥݔѡ䁽ɸѕ̰ЁٕѡЁ́Յ)́ፕ͕́ѡ́٥܁́ɕхѕЁɥѽѱéɥѡչх