The World Explored, the World Suffered Education Issue Nr. 32 July 2020 - Page 42

language as composed of a set of names that he had presented in his early work "Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus". Wittgenstein's later work rejected his earlier theory of the meaning of language in favour of a theory that focused on the actual use of words and sentences in various forms of discourse. Each form of discourse was like a game we play with rules which we learn to use when we acquire language in our childhood. These language games are embedded in very Aristotelian sounding "forms of life"(human activities). Amongst the grounds, Wittgenstein had for the repudiation of this aspect of his earlier work was the accusation of postulating a solipsistic linguistic soul and one is left wondering whether this "power of projecting" the language structure of what appeared to be a private language user was also a result of the influence of Augustine. St Augustine's account of the relation between the soul and the body proceeds via the relation of the sensations the body experiences and the truth about reality that those sensations "reveal". Brett characterises St Augustine's position in the following way "The mind strives to see the truth. In sensation it sees truth through the body, which is the only way of apprehending some truths." On this kind of account, sensation and perception are intellectual powers that play an important part in the "revelation" of the nature of the physical world. This creates a possible defensible realm for the knowledge of external material objects. Augustine goes on to insist, however, that the experience of "externality" is a delusion. Brett summarises this point thus: "Knowledge is always of an object and seems to keep the object away fro the observer: in perception, there is an outer object, and science is no more than a system of such perceptions. But the perceptions themselves are not outside us: they are really ourself in action, and they illuminate themselves until the inner light increases or breaks up the darkness of ignorance. At that point, man became conscious that the relation to outer objects is unsatisfactory. What a man knows truly he makes part of himself..... After science with its delusion of externality, comes wisdom: here knowledge reaches its highest development, but the nature of man is still not wholly formed:so long as the reason is a dry light it is partly abstract but when the will identifies itself with the known, when Love is added to wisdom, every element in mans nature is fused into a unity, the unity is complete and the development is finished." So, the Will involved in the love of God has the final word. The introduction into this account of the important role of the Will anticipates the Wittgensteinian later picture of language as active. It also anticipates