The World Explored, the World Suffered Education Issue Nr. 32 July 2020 - Page 29

Aristotle countering this proposal with the view that the form partly resides in the external natural object. Avicenna's approach to the work of Aristotle was also encyclopedic and he divided his attention up into areas of logic, physics, mathematics, and metaphysics. Anthony Kenny, in his work " A New History of Western Philosophy" argues that Avicenna's work in metaphysics is "a thoroughly thought out original system"(P.38). The system begins with the claim that a grasp of universals and principles by the active intellect complements a more receptive mind that requires information from the senses of the body. The system discusses the nature of God in terms which will reverberate long into the twentieth century, claiming a unity of the concepts of essence and existence. God is a being, it is argued whose essence logically entails the being's existence in an eternal realm in which the world has "emanated" from God. The move from a principle to the realm of existence it constitutes is recognizably Platonic: the form of the oak tree is constitutive of the physical oak tree. Insofar as God is concerned the Platonic system may appear at first sight to be more complex than the Aristotelian given the intermediate role of the Demiurge in contexts of creation, and there arises here a question about whether "emanation" is a term that ranges over three entities, God, the Demiurge and the physical world instead of the Aristotelian proposal of a two-term relation which given his position that the principle or form of something can be "in" that thing suggests a relation of mutual implication between the two terms. If this is the case, the notion of "emanation" which suggests a one-way implication between three terms may not satisfactorily characterize the Aristotelian position. Avicenna's own account, however, postulated no further than 10 different terms or levels of intellect in a heavenly realm beyond the fixed stars. Emanation in this contexts appears, however, to be a central notion giving a distinctly Neoplatonic impression. The correct characterization of these different systems may be of more than academic interest given the fact that Avicenna claimed to use Aristotelian justifications for the practices of polygamy, the subordination of women and many other Islamic social practices. The Aristotelian component of his reflections, however, were not appreciated by many conservative Muslims. Professor Brett in his work "The History of Psychology" has the following account which may illuminate some of the aspects of the debate: "The history of Arabian Philosophy is mainly a record of translations and comments. This judgment commonly passed on the philosophy as a whole applies with still greater force to such topics as may be called psychological.....there is no clear line of demarcation between the