The World Explored, the World Suffered Education Issue Nr. 32 July 2020 - Page 15

hardly be Christianity as such(the so-called "turn the other cheek mentality"). Perhaps a more fitting causal candidate would be an assumption or assumptions of Christianity such as the dualistic theory of the Good, invoking as it does the view of man as a "fallen being" more inclined to sin than to virtue, living in a Manichaean world where evil is a real presence. In relation to such a state of affairs, the Platonic and Aristotelian explanations would merely refer to the absence of the Good. St Augustine, we should remember embraced a Manichaean division of the city into earthly and divine elements and this pagan form of dualism was still a major cultural influence during his time. Recall again the fact that the Vandals were poised for attack outside the gates of Hippo while St Augustine was writing his work "The City of God". It is tempting to speculate on whether the work is pointing a finger at the weaknesses of a dualistic account of the Good. Later Philosophers like Kant would, in such a discussion, emphasise the logical nature of "ought-statements", emphasise that is, the logical nature of an ought statement which is temporally oriented to the future and to the changes in the world to be brought about in the future in accordance with both an idea of the good and a good intention: making the suggestion that the good is somehow concretely real in the present situation, contentious, to say the least, (Evil similarly becomes an abstraction: a negation of this abstract "Good"). Much human discourse is, of course, naturally directed to this future state of affairs and the relation of our ideas to what we intend to bring about. What this discussion draws attention to is the possible claim that a dualistic account of the Good might have played a part in the so-called "moral decay" of the Roman spirit Gibbon claims to have observed (Whether this dualism is Christian or pagan(Manichaeism)). This might have been a defendable state of affairs had there not existed a monistic/holistic theory of the Good such as that presented by Aristotle. In this context, we are reminded of Heidegger's observations on the nature of the Latin language, namely that it is not an academic language like Greek. It is rather, Heidegger insists, a language of imperialism and conquest. (Perhaps one could add to this that it was a pragmatic language, a language for engineers).The most magnificent image of the above two discussion points is the image of the Roman God, Janus who, we recall has two faces oriented in different directions. Hannah Arendt in her work "Between the Past and the Future"characterises the spirit of Janus correctly in terms of the synthesis of the view of the past(the backward historical glance) and the future(the forward-looking eschatological glance). In her work on St Augustine, however, she chooses to focus upon the backward-looking historical glance which seeks after the origins and beginnings of things rather than the forward-looking ends toward which much of our discourse and many of our actions point. She points to the mental faculty of the memory and claims that it is associated with the search for explanatory origins that Romans, in contradistinction to Plato and Aristotle, believed had a first beginning in time. Aristotle's commentary on such a state of affairs would reject the ideas of beginnings and endings of time and see the face staring backward as rather staring into the eternity of elapsed time. The Romans, given their history(and their language) would see the face oriented toward the future as concerned with the future of the next battle(Janus means "gateway" and was therefore placed at the city gate through which the troops marched off to war and through which they returned in victory and defeat). Obviously, the wished-for victory was not in accordance with the "turn the other