The World Explored, the World Suffered Education Issue Nr. 30 May 2020 - Page 39

also responsible for war and all forms of human aggression. This, in turn, is reminiscent of the position that Freud adopts in his "Civilisation and its Discontents" where all of Culture is a battlefield in which the giants of Eros and Thanatos struggle for supremacy. A more potent image of " world spirit", conjured up more or less on the eve of the second world war is difficult to find. One of the Gnostic texts discovered near Nag Hammadi: the "Testimony of Truth" gives a controversial interpretation of the Myth of the Garden of Eden (an interpretation incidentally that Aristotle certainly would have approved of.) The interpretation views the whole series of events through the eyes of the value of knowledge and the speaking serpent in the Garden. The Serpent does not use symbolic pictures but probably something resembling an argument to suggest that knowledge is necessary for the future development of his interlocutors, Adam and Eve. God is accused of being malicious and holding grudges. Unsurprisingly, this text and many others were regarded as the blasphemy of heretics by many members of the hierarchy of the Catholic Church. The Serpent convinces Eve who convinces Adam. The kind of knowledge at issue here is not clear but it is probably not epistemé. It is probably more akin to the kind of knowledge the Delphic oracle challenged man to acquire, namely self- knowledge which according to Gnosticism is the path to divine knowledge or knowledge of God. Pagels in her work "The Gnostic Gospels" quotes the Gnostic Teacher Monoimus: "Abandon the search for God and the creation and other matters of similar sort. Look for him by taking yourself as a starting point. Learn who it is within you who makes everything his own and says "My God, my mind, my thought, my soul, my body. Learn the sources of sorrow, joy, love, hate...If you carefully investigate these matters you will find him in yourself." (p18) This is clearly a matter of intuitive knowledge or what some have called insight acquired via experience subjected to a kind of self-evaluation or process of self questioning. Beyond these recommendations the kind of investigation required for this voyage of self-discovery is obscure and the problem, from the Christian point of view, with these so-called secret Gospels, is that they transpose the theme of salvation through repentance of sins into a philosophical/psychological theme of enlightenment from illusion. Pagels suggests that this recommendation sounds more Eastern than Western but there is an argument to be made that we are on Platonic terrain. Pagels does, however, in the context of this debate raise an interesting hypothesis relating to the possible influence of the Brahmins who conceive of God as Logos or the light of discourse. The Gospel of John could well refer to this Eastern position or alternatively, it could refer to an awareness of the role of the language of sacred texts in the conversion or salvation process of individuals. One might wonder If it is the case that the Platonic ascent from the darkness of illusory images deep inside the cave to the enlightenment provided by the knowledge of the forms or principles of all existence might also