The World Explored, the World Suffered Education Issue Nr. 30 May 2020 - Page 28

greater shame) to freely decide that there is no further point to his life continuing. The Epicureans, on the other hand, would on the basis of their pleasure-pain principle (the two sovereign masters of man) have no problems agreeing to the act of self-centred suicide if the balance of pains outweighed the pleasures of the individual. This kind of self-centred hedonic calculus would not be sanctioned by either a Stoic or a Kantian account that indeed resembled the Stoic position that in its turn in certain respects resembled Aristotelian virtue theory. This is, of course, another reason to refuse to acknowledge any significant relation of similarity between the Stoic and Epicurean positions. Connected to the position of acknowledging the differences between the two positions is to see Epicureanism as the inheritor of the relativism of the Sophists at the same time as seeing Epicureanism as the father of the individualism of the modern age and modern life. Modern life is obviously, worth less when measured on a modern hedonic scale that somehow can justify the taking of an invaluable human life if painful consequences can somehow be seen to outweigh the sheer pleasure and wonder of living: as if these two different dimensions of our life can be measured on the same scale. On this uni-linear scale life is not a gift from God or anyone else but rather a utility to be measured scientifically or symbolically pictured in our literary texts. On this account, my life is a possession to do with whatever I wish, dispose of, if and when I please. The modern art form -film- is filled with symbolic pictures of heroes without a cause sacrificing their lives in a scientific and literary vacuum similar to the vacuum created by the absence of reason that reigns in the world of the addict. Brett then falsely equates individualism with humanism in another quote in which he seeks to exaggerate the similarities and discard the differences between the Epicurean and Stoic positions: "Stoics and Epicureans alike are absorbed in the problem of the life of feeling: they acknowledge openly that mans whole being is concentrated in his passions and their thoughts centre upon the fact, whether they preach restraint or justifying indulgence. This is the new focus, the humanism of the new era." This is, to say the least, a contentious characterisation of the Stoic school of Philosophy that is celebrated for its commitment to logic, knowledge, and cognition as distinct from "feeling and passion". The reason why the Stoic preaches restraint, namely to be worthy of a flourishing life, might indeed be not worth the effort on the Epicurean (or Utilitarian) hedonic or "feeling" calculus since the pain might very well "outweigh" the pleasure. Yet surely one might wish to argue feeling must have some relation to our judgments! According to Kant's Third Critique, "The Critique of Judgment", one can indeed speak cognitively about a feeling if that means "speaking with a universal voice" in the hope for assent in relation to others possessing the same feeling. This state of affairs appears to arise when the "cognitive" faculty of the understanding and the pre-cognitive imagination find themselves in some kind of harmonious relation to each other. No conceptualisation, however, is involved in this state of affairs