The World Explored, the World Suffered Education Issue Nr. 30 May 2020 - Page 14

not on the agenda of either the OT or the NT. This is somewhat surprising given the fact that one of the grounds for a discussion of the relation of these two terms is a Philosophical Psychology that has identified the individual will as an important element of action. The explanation for this state of affairs, however, lies with two factors: the abandonment of rationality and the Stoic connection of the will to the will to survive. The way in which language is used in the NT in combination with the above two factors overshadows the accumulated wisdom of Philosophical Psychology. The telos of reason or rationality of the individual is, as was the case in the OT, replaced with the theological goal of the salvation of the individual through individual works (in the spirit of faith in God and the words of his prophets). With the absence of reason and the consequent devaluation of the importance of knowledge in the sense of epistemé, a vacuum of justification emerges that is filled with powers of mind such as the Imagination and its connection to the Emotions. Juxtapose the Imagination with Language and the emotions, and we are confronted with the "symbolic pictures" referred to by Brett. These pictures may, of course, be factually true(true descriptions of the life of Jesus, for example) but the symbolic structure of these "pictures" place these descriptions in a realm of meaning where the descriptions also refer to the intended relation of man to the sacred.” Gnosticism and its sceptical challenge emerges as an alternative picture in the battle between “symbolic pictures” in a war characterised with the words “the truth will set you free”: “As we know, however, even the mere factual descriptions of the life of Jesus have been a matter of controversy ever since the discovery of alternative Gnostic Gospels. This is an issue of knowledge or epistemé or truth about the external world and probably unrelated to the kind of inner truth or insight that Jesus was referring to in John 8:32. The Gnostics as we know promote truth perhaps in a wider sense but definitively in relation to an inherited and transformed philosophical psychology. The Gnostic Gospel of Thomas, for example, claims that Jesus also said the following: "Jesus said, "if you bring forth what is within you, what you bring forth will save you. If you do not bring forth what is within you, what you do not bring forth will destroy you" The idea of something within having such destructive power reminds the modern reader of Freud's death instinct, Thanatos, that is biological in origin but also responsible for war and all forms of human aggression. This, in turn, is reminiscent of the position that Freud adopts in his "Civilisation and its Discontents" where all of Culture is a battlefield in which the giants of Eros and Thanatos struggle for supremacy. A more potent image of " world spirit", conjured up more or less on the eve of the second world war is difficult to find.” Gnotosticism may have been politically outmanoevred in the ensuing frays but the essay closes with the following judgments: “one might also wonder why the Aristotelian arguments against the Platonic theory of forms in the context of dualistic philosophical psychology and metaphysics were not considered as an extension of the Platonic rationalist position. One answer to this question is that the weakness of the theory of forms and various dualistic assumptions sufficed for many thinkers to abandon rationality as a power of mind and justificatory principle in favour of what Brett called the "lofty passions" or what we refer to as "spirit"(which of course is also a Platonic aspect of the soul). What is at issue in this abandonment of Rationality is not merely an academic affair relating to Academic areas of knowledge such as Mathematics, it is rather the