The World Explored, the World Suffered Education Issue Nr. 25 December 2019 - Page 17

in aggression). Freud's theory, as we know moved from resting uneasily on quantitative considerations relating to energy distribution and the experience of pleasure and pain to the realm of meaning which better characterized analytical discourse. He refused to acknowledge that the world should be purified of its myths, although of course, he led one of the battles against religion in the name of "scientific psychology". Later on in this work, Harari is going to speak of delusions. In the light of the hallucinatory wish-fulfillment connotations of this term "delusion" in psychoanalytical theory, we will return to Psychoanalysis when considering Harari's claim. We will also return to Psychoanalytical theory when we consider the role of art(compared with science) in the shaping of our civilization. The collapse of the institutions of the family and the local community was motivated by Harari in terms of its inadequacies and the fact that there were no alternatives available. These inadequacies were addressed by the market and the nation-state which produced alternative forms of care and protection from the business world and the government. Families did not always and immediately appreciate this transformation of their traditional ways of living. Prior to the Industrial Revolution, in 1781 Immanuel Kant wrote his first major work, "The Critique of Pure Reason" that pointed to the displacement of the idea of God with the idea of Freedom. This is, of course, a more positive observation in relation to the change of "mentality" of individuals: mentality here probably refers less to states of consciousness or moods of the individual and more to the individual's attitudes. On Kant's theories, this social change was a positive phenomenon although he was already pointing out the inadequacies of the nation-state in relation to human rights and war. Just over one century, well into the era of the Industrial Revolution, Freud begins to address the issue of the mental health of citizens of nation-states just at the time when they were embracing an "expansion at any price" business and marketing policy. His work "Civilisation and its Discontents" was a kind of judgment on the mentality of modern man living in his relatively modern industrialized nation-states. Freud's individual cases however very often exposed the shortcomings of the family and it was partly his work that contributed to the later movements that consequently thought in terms of the right a child has to a non-oppressive or non-brutal upbringing. Thanks to Freud's work children too could free themselves from oppression and repression. But Harari claims that the project of social re- engineering did not proceed smoothly for many reasons. Perhaps one of the major reasons was the inevitable restriction upon an individual's freedom which such a project appeared to demand. Insofar as states and markets interfere with the human rights of the individual there should be no doubt that this is an unsatisfactory state of affairs. The