The World Explored, the World Suffered Education Issue Nr. 25 December 2019 - Page 13

right only exists if someone(a government, the United Nations) has a duty to protect it. This political position assumes a Kantian ethical position in which intentions play a decisive role in contradistinction to consequences. The author produces a number of examples of new rulers in India who it is claimed were concerned only with enriching themselves. It is not clear from the text whether the author believed that this was encouraged or sanctioned by the British government and it is in this context that he claims that whether we believe imperialism was good or evil it actually created the powerful world we live in including the scientific theories or ideologies we use to assess it. It is not clear what the author means by ideologies but one suspects that they are not connected to what he would regard as the "old" knowledge of the good which comes from the Philosophies of Aristotle and Kant that eventually gave rise to the objective idea of human rights so important in the world today. It is, however, admitted that science can be used for "sinister ends" the right to rule over non-Europeans on the grounds of a "proof" of their superiority as a race. What did this so-called "proof" look like, one wonders? Philosophically, it is quite clear that the relative concepts of "superior and inferior" are constructs of what Philosophers call the "naturalistic fallacy". The so-called "proof" moves from the acknowledgment of a number of facts(so-called is-statements) to an ought statement, namely that a particular group of people "ought to rule". This realm of value judgments is a realm that science and its concern with observation and collecting the totality of facts is something that as Wittgenstein claimed "must be passed over in silence" because the assumptions do not allow anything to be said. The problem is that scientists want to use their assumptions in an area they cannot be used in, and consequently end up producing "proofs" of the above kind that incidentally proved very useful for Hitler and Stalin. Wittgenstein in his early work at least had the academic honesty to stay silent on the issue of values and he realized in his later work that he needed to abandon his "scientific" assumptions if he was to say anything meaningful in this area of Philosophy. Hitler and Wittgenstein apparently attended the same Gymnasium school. The Postmodernist form of this "scientism" is the contention that human rights are a figment of our imagination and science and culture are viruses that care nothing for their hosts. "Culture" or the created word "culturism" is also discussed in the above context and it is claimed that perhaps superiority should be characterized in terms of cultural history rather than races.