The World Explored, the World Suffered Education Issue Nr. 22 September 2019 - Page 4

innovation. In what Ocampo refers to as "this hierarchical system" this work is, according to Aristotle, the significant difference which justifies the fact that a larger proportion of benefits should accrue to the workers behind this work. It might be, in fact, that in an Aristotelian economic system, work is the value which is being measured. Hannah Arendt argued for a threefold distinction to be observed in this arena of discussion: labour, work and action. Ocampo talks much about labour but not of work or of action, areas of activity which are more complex than labour. If it is these two latter categories, work and action, that are the real generators of value in our society then it is not helpful to construct economic systems based on the value of equality which at best measure the value of labour. The issue of the rights of non industrialised nations presuppose the responsibility of the industrialised nations to assist in the process of the development of non industrialised countries. This issue or rights can only be discussed in relation to the ethical ideas of justice which relate to action. Ocampa wishes for a system of institutions to work and to act in the interests of the non industrialised actors but there is no coherent model for the justification of this work and action coming from the field of economic theory. There is more than an echo here of an old complaint from Socrates who pointed out that doing what is just, and understanding what is just, requires knowledge.” The second lecture entitled “The Pathological Nation-State and the European Project: Aristotle, Kant, Freud and Ricoeur” is an essay about the roots of populism in pathological social and political conditions: "Things of this world are in so constant a flux that nothing remains long in the same state."--(John Locke). This was written 300 years ago and could be an accurate description of our current states of political affairs. Philosophically, this suggests that Political theory ought to be at the very least a theory of social and political change which of course will require some kind of relation to historical knowledge. Historical knowledge manifests our more significant social and political memories. Such memories and the narratives embodying them are a key not just to the identity of individuals but also to the identity of peoples. The Problem of personal identity presupposes continuity of our memory which is one of the criteria of personal identity along with secondly, the criteria of the continuity of our physical body, and Aristotle would add two further criteria, namely, the continuity of our social institutions(such as language) and the continuity of our political institutions and processes. Aristotle claimed in this context that a good man needs a good state to be good and this echoes a Platonic assumption that the personality of the good man requires living in a society with just institutions. In the Republic Socrates attempts to define justice by reference to the harmonious relations of the parts of the soul of a good man. His interlocutors think this psychological or anthropological approach is inadequate and Socrates is forced to appeal to a Platonic Kallipolis or fully functioning just state in order for his argument to have any chance of achieving what it set out to do. The Socrates of Plato's Republic is well aware, however, of the fragility of even a perfect state and the risk of its degeneration into the