The World Explored, the World Suffered Education Issue Nr. 22 September 2019 - Page 2

Editorial: 22nd Issue September 1st 2019 Blog: Journal site The first lecture is entitled “ A Critique of The Conceptual Foundations of International Politics: Lecture Ten”. The lecturer Jose Antonio Ocampo outlines a largely critical view of Globalisation: Ocampo notes that there are three critical issues relating to the institutions of the International Economic system: "* An incomplete and biased agenda * An incomplete set of institutions * Asymmetry between the agenda and the instruments for actions * Unsettled relation between globalisation and the nation state * Developing countries have limited voice and limited participation" Ocampo, having argued for the first two points earlier in relation to the third point mentioned above points out that the UN millennium goals clearly had an agenda but the instruments of action to achieve these goals were lacking: “The major problem he notes is that the development of international institutions is lagging behind what the International economy requires. As a consequence he disagrees with the previous speaker and argues that there is continuing divergence between the economic growth of industrialised and developing countries especially in those developing countries outside of Asia which is part of a trend of longer term increase in International Inequality. He does, however note a statistic that might be a counterargument against his position: "Between 2004 and 2007 there was for the first time a faster rate of growth in the developing countries than in the developed countries. Is this a trend?We do not yet know, for example if the economies of China and India can function as locomotives and pull the growth of the world economy forward. According to a recent UN University study, 88% of the world lives in countries where inequality is increasing"” The lecturer points out also that the amount of social spending on education health and social protection is proportionate to how developed an economy is. The theoretical modesl used are often problematic: “There is paradoxically a theoretical bias in this discussion, as there is in economics generally: a bias which works on the assumption that there is a constant or uniform state of the system which all actions of the system attempt to create or maintain. The interesting question to ask is what is the best concept