The World Explored, the World Suffered Education Issue Nr. 22 September 2019 - Page 19

European movements and he did address this very interesting philosophical question of the identity of the nation state. He, like Arendt, points to the problems nationalist movements pose for the natural pluralistic diversity of conglomerations of populations and suggests that history and tradition in itself is not sufficient to constitute a state. Ricouer was more critical of Kant than Arendt and would probably have been prepared to accept a Hegelian teleological interpretation of tradition and history: an interpretation which characterises the flow of history dialectically in terms of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis: capitalism, communism and humanistic liberalism. More importantly Ricouer implicitly embraces an Aristotelian model of state identity when he proposes his philosophical response to the globalizing forces of public and political life: forces which involve commerce, technology, ecology and national security He too believes that state identity has a similar structure to an individual's personal identity. Ricouer claims that the globalization forces referred to above in the political system produces fragility. Counteracting forces are therefore needed to create a new form of European political authority. He suggests that religious institutions, institutions concerned with knowledge and learning , including schools and universities, should engage with this problem by trying to build opinion for a new political authority. He also suggests three mechanisms or models that can be culturally used in this process of cultural evolution. Firstly, a model of linguistic hospitality involving the translation of texts and discourse from other European cultures, secondly the exchange of cultural memories of norms, perspectives, customs and traditions of other European nations and thirdly a mechanism or model of secular forgiveness which is seen in the operation of the law in its intention to heal the injured and compensate the victim of selfishness or aggression. This third model or mechanism is more than an echo of the Socratic appeal not to return evil for the evil done to one by outsiders.. This category transcends that of individual rights and the law and resembles a Buddhist gift which one can ask for but cannot demand. Ricouer has also written one of the greatest books written on Freud, in which he points out the strength and limitations of psychoanalytic categories in the explanation of cultural phenomena. Freud, who was asked by the League of Nations to write a discourse on War well before the second world war began, reasoned himself into a position in which the discontents of civilization should adopt a stoical attitude of resignation to the imperfections of their societies. This, according to Freud is the only wise avenue of approach to the question relating to how the individual "bears the burden of existence" and bears the burden of our imperfectly constructed States.