The World Explored, the World Suffered Education Issue Nr. 22 September 2019 - Page 11

This is the final lecture in this series. The lecture is clearly a quantitatively based data driven lecture which is, however, trying to make ideological and ethical criticisms of existing global structures and processes. Ocampo begins by noting that he is going to adopt a critical perspective of global structures and processes from the point of view of the opportunities and difficulties experienced by the developing world. There are, he claims, two views of global economic development. Firstly there is the claim of David Ricardo who views the International Economy as an entity in which all participants are equal partners. Secondly there is the alternative view which Ocampo appears to argue for, in which the International Economy is a system where unequal partners relate to each other on unequal terms. Ocampo then produces an overhead highlighting three critical issues: "* Uneven liberalisation of markets * Uneven distribution of benefits * Global institutions lag behind Global Markets" He then supplements the information on the overhead relating to the uneven liberalisation of the markets by pointing out firstly that industrialised countries have an enormous advantage in the system because they have developed institutions which can mange what he calls "the down sides of markets". He notes that there are three critical issues relating to the institutions of the International Economic system: "* An incomplete and biased agenda * An incomplete set of institutions * Asymmetry between the agenda and the instruments for actions * Unsettled relation between globalisation and the nation state * Developing countries have limited voice and limited participation" Ocampo, having argued for the first two points earlier in relation to the third point mentioned above points out that the UN millennium goals clearly had an agenda but the instruments of action to achieve these goals were lacking. In relation to the fourth point concerning globalisation and the nation state he provides a detailed overhead of what he regards as the three different stages of globalisation: The first stage between 1870 and 1913, the second between 1945 and 1973, and the third between 1974 and the present time(2007). The missing years are the war years in which he argued all global activity ceased. He notes that in the current period, for example, there are high levels of capital mobility and a growing volume of labour mobility and trade, and that there is growing