The World Explored, the World Suffered Education Issue Nr. 19 June 2019 - Page 31

to know about this material substrate which is as inseparable from its mental aspect as the shape of the ax is inseparable from its function of "chopping". The soul and the body for Aristotle are in the human inseparable aspects. Ross has this to say on this topic: " Most mental phenomena are attended by some bodily affection....Mental phenomena, therefore, are "formulae involving matter. The true definition of them will omit neither their form or end(their rational causation) nor their matter(their physiological conditions"(Ross, p137) The soul has its rational and irrational parts and also its various faculties which Ross explains in the following way: "He is simply taking account of the fact that the soul does exhibit a variety of operations and that behind each of these intermittent operations we must suppose a permanent power of so operating. But these faculties do not exist like stones in a heap. They have a definite order, an order of worth, and a reverse order of development in the individual. Further, they have a characteristic which we may roughly call interpenetration. Thus, for instance, intellect and desire are distinct faculties, but the highest species of desire is of a kind which can only occur in beings which have intellect and is itself intellectual. Choice or will may equally well be called desiring reason and reasoning desire, and in it, the whole of man is involved."(Ross, p139) The language of potentiality and actuality is particularly important in the Psychology of Aristotle because of Aristotle's insistence of categorical distinctions between the operations of the soul: Firstly, there are feeling operations and secondly operations which actualize the possession of capacities and thirdly operations which actualize the possession of dispositions. Dispositions are higher level capacities, they are rationally regulated capacities. The virtues are examples of dispositions and language is an example of a capacity. Reason is a faculty and its relation to the other faculties is regarded by many commentators as a mystery. With reason we approach the contemplative life of God, the divine life but this contemplative life does not appear to have any links with the body, according to Aristotle. Philosophical Psychology also deals with Perception. Given what has been said previously about the nature of the physical body being defined by its system of organs we can draw the conclusion that the senses are obviously materially connected with organs. One of the accusations traditionally directed at Aristotle is that he confuses the purely physiological with the psychological. The physical eye, of course, is connected to the organ of the brain and Aristotle states that perception takes place in the head as a result of the eye taking on the sensible form of whatever it is perceiving. The eye somehow identifies itself with the brown and green colours of the tree and the shape of the tree and the outcome,