The World Explored, the World Suffered Education Issue Nr. 19 June 2019 - Page 20

Kant, we are told by Hannah Arendt, did not produce a political Philosophy. This is a curious statement to make given the following facts: 1.) that our system of human rights is probably based on Kant's formulations of the Categorical Imperative and 2. The United Nations was suggested by Kant in one of his essays on Political Philosophy. Arendt wishes to make the case that we should look to Kant's remarks on Judgment if we are to apply Kantian ideas to the realm of the political. For Arendt, the understanding and the kind of practical reasoning being used in ethics and the formulation and defense of the categorical imperative are irrelevant to the particularities one encounters in the political realm. This means that Judgment cannot command categorically what one ought and ought not to do. It can, in Kantian terms only ask and hope for an agreement by speaking in a universal voice as one does in our judgments of beauty. The grounds of our judgment then become obscurely the non-conceptual common sensibility(the feelings and emotions) we share with all humans. That is instead of beginning in our reasoning with an ought statement, we begin with an is-statement about common feelings and sensibility and then somehow mysteriously jump to the ought conclusions that are required by political judgments, ignoring logical restraints associated with the naturalistic fallacy. The categorical nature of the understanding is implied by the phrase "Categorical Imperative" and reasoning that about ends in itself rather than means to ends is also what Kant thinks of as "categorical". Professor Smith also fixes upon this notion of particularity and transports us into the realm of judgment and away from the law-like structure of the political and ethical realms. Sensibility unregulated by understanding and reason will for both Kant and Aristotle stay forever mired in the swamp of particulars. Although in judgment we are saying something about something the subject of the judgment is always a particular. Looking at man as a particular and excluding understanding and reason will only result in an individual story where individual desires or facts reign. Using such judgments results in a history of particular events which we may find interesting or even beautiful but which we can only tentatively judge with our "universal" voices. The generality is not achieved by recasting our actor's role in a society for society too can be thought about in the particular, as being a polis situated in a particular place and at a particular time. We begin to think categorically only when the major premise of the argument begins "All Societies are..." or just in case Kant is right in his claim that no society is completely free and completely just the argument rather should begin "All societies ought...." Smith is cognisant of the fact that Political science or Philosophy is in a considerable state of disarray but he mistakenly thinks that Aristotle and Kant have contributed to the chaotic situation he experiences in the Universities. He refers to Aristotle but fails to pursue Aristotle's categorical path where the laws