English Name: Rye Turkish Name: Çavdar Latin Name: Secale cereale Spainish Name: Centeno Portoguese Name:Centeio Rye (Secale cereale) is an important cereal crop in the cooler parts of northern and central Europe and Russia, cultivated up to the Arctic Circle and to 4000 m above sea level. The broad area of production includes Russia, Poland, Germany, Argentina, South Africa, Canada, and the United States. Rye is extremely hardy and can grow in sandy soils of low fertility. Estonian Name: Rukis It is more tolerant of drought, cold, and other adverse growing conditions than are other cereal crops, is more winter hardy than all other small grains, and exhibits a greater amount of fall and early spring growth than do wheat (Triticum) or Oats (Avena sativa). Although spring and winter biotypes of Rye exist, most of the world supply is obtained from winter varieties HABİTAT: TURKEY, ARMENIA. USES Rye was probably domesticated in eastern Turkey and Armenia, but more recently than wheat. In all Rye-producing countries more than 50% of the grain is used in animal feed, but it is also important in human nutrition. Rye is used in making "black bread"