The Missouri Reader Vol. 41, Issue 2 - Page 38

Using Google Hangout to Learn about Missouri

By: Brooke Hult

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Teachers engage in analysis within the cycle shown in Figure 2. They work in collaboration with students, families, faculty colleagues, assessment specialists, and other team members such as administrators, to plan and implement instruction. During the “plan” phase teachers should determine learning goals related to reading skills that are tied to state and national standards (Cawelti, 2004). Careful analysis of assessment data helps a teacher to set learning goals that appropriately relate to the student’s skill development and prior knowledge (Chaiklin, 2003).

Goals are informed by feedback given to students – and parents - based on an ongoing analysis of the assessed learning gains and needs. Teachers should work together with the student and parents in a cycle that involves planning, instruction, studying results of instruction, and acting together on findings that shed light on how to improve educational outcomes.

Analysis of the extent to which results are satisfactory during the “check” phase leads to the development of action steps toward improvement of instruction. As part of this ongoing analysis, the teacher works with students, parents and other colleagues to examine whether instruction is fulfilling the requirements, needs and desires of students and the family. Reflection on data shapes the way that a teacher develops plans, and then re-enters the cycle of planning instruction.

Conclusion

Teachers can build communication that includes ongoing efforts to address whether evidence of learning outcomes align with and confirm learning goals. This way, teachers, students and parents collaborate to ensure that goals are met, implemented, and evaluated. As an important aspect of differentiated instruction, teachers should employ regular and systematic assessment and use evidence as part of efforts to improve student performance

The approach to formative assessment presented in this article promotes differentiated instruction through the development of clear goals and instruction based on feedback from assessment. Teaching is aligned with objectives, and assessment is developed around these objectives. Strategic Content Literacy Assessment rubrics are developed to track student learning and progress.

References

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Barab, S.A., & Duffy, T.M. (2000). From practice fields to communities of practice. In D. H. Jonassen and S.M. Land (Eds.), Theoretical foundations of learning environments. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Black, P., & William, D. (1998). Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 5(1), 7–76.

Brookhart, S.M. (2013). How to create and use rubrics for formative assessment and grading. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Brownlie, F., Feniak, C., & Schnellert, L. (2016). Student diversity: Classroom strategies to meet the learning needs of all students in K-10 Classrooms (3rd Ed.). Markham, Ontario, Canada: Pembroke.

Carless, D. (2006). Differing perceptions in the feedback process. Studies in Higher

Education, 3 (2), 219-233.

Cawelti, G., (ed.) (2004). Handbook of research on improving student achievement (third edition). Arlington, VA.: Educational Research Service.

Chaiklin, S. (2003). The zone of proximal development in Vygotsky’s analysis of learning and instruction. In A. Kozulin, B. Gindis, V.S. Ageyev, & S.M. Miller (Eds.), Vygotsky’s educational theory in cultural context (pp. 39-64). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Dalton, B., Proctor, C. P., Uccelli, P., Mo. E., & Snow, C. E. (2011). Designing for diversity: The role of reading strategies and interactive vocabulary in a Digital Reading Environment 417 digital reading environment for fifth-grade monolingual English and bilingual students. Journal of Literacy Research, 43(1), 68–100.

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