Surface World May 2018 Surface World May 2018 - Page 56

To measure coatings on small features, XRF coatings instruments use either a proportional counter (PC) or a silicon drift detector (SDD). Proportional counters are good for many coatings applications, but are best when there are few elements present in the sample and when measuring thin coatings on small areas. In the worst cases, they may find their reputation tarnished when products fail. By regularly checking their output, businesses can ensure they minimise their w …ΝΡ”…Ή)Ρ‘”‘½έΉΡ₯΅”…ΥΝ•‰δ‘…Ω₯ΉœΡΌΝΙ…ΐ)½ΘΙ•έ½Ι¬ΑΙ½‘ՍΡΜΈ)½ΘΡ‘₯́ɕ…Ν½Έ°‘½½Ν₯ΉœΡ‘”Ι₯‘Ё•ΕΥ₯Α΅•ΉΠ)ΡΌ…Ή…±εΝ”½…Ρ₯ΉΜ₯́•αΡΙ•΅•±δ₯΅Α½ΙΡ…ΉΠ)™½Θε½Υȁ‰ΥΝ₯Ή•ΝΜΈ5…Ήδ½΅Α…Ή₯•Μέ‘Ό)…Ή…±εΝ”½…Ρ₯ΉΜ‘½½Ν”aI‰•…ΥΝ”₯ӊeΜ)Ή½Έ΅‘•ΝΡΙՍΡ₯Ω”°™…ΝЁ…ΉΝΡΙ…₯‘Ρ™½Ι݅ɐΈaI)₯ΉΝΡΙΥ΅•ΉΡ́½΅”₯Έ΅…Ήδ™½Ι΅Μέ₯Ρ ™•…ΡΥΙ•Μ)Ρ‘…Ё‘•Ρ•Ι΅₯Ή”‘½ά…ΑΑΙ½ΑΙ₯…Ρ”Ρ‘•δ…Ι”™½Θε½ΥΘ)…ΑΑ±₯…Ρ₯½ΈΈQέΌ­•δΡ‘₯ΉΜε½ΤΝ‘½Υ±½ΉΝ₯‘•Θ)έ‘•Έ‘½½Ν₯Ήœε½Υȁ•ΕΥ₯Α΅•ΉΠ₯́ё”ΡεΑ”½˜)‘•Ρ•Ρ½Θ…ΉΡ‘”Ν₯锁½˜Ν…΅Α±”ε½Τ΅•…ΝΥΙ”θ) ‘½½Ν₯ΉœΡ‘”Ι₯‘Ё‘•Ρ•Ρ½Θ…Έ₯Ω”ε½Τ)Ν‘½Ιѕȁ΅•…ΝΥΙ•΅•ΉΠΡ₯΅•ΜΡΌ₯΅ΑΙ½Ω”Ρ•ΝΡ₯Ήœ)ёɽ՝‘ΑΥЁ…Ή½™™•Θ‰•Ρѕȁ™±•α₯‰₯±₯ΡδΡΌ΅…­”)Ρ‘”…Ή…±ε͕ȁ…́ΑΙ½‘ՍΡ₯Ω”…́Α½ΝΝ₯‰±”Έ(ΤΠ)MŠé΅½Ι”•…Ν₯±δ‘…Ή‘±”½΅Α±•ΰ)½…Ρ₯ΉΜΝΡΙՍΡΥɕ́‰•…ΥΝ”½˜Ρ‘•₯ȁΝΥΑ•Ι₯½Θ)Ι•Ν½±ΥΡ₯½ΈμMŠé…Έ…±ΝΌ‰”‰•Ρѕȁ™½ΘΩ•Ιδ)Ρ‘₯Έ½…Ρ₯ΉΜ€ πΐΈΐԁմ€ΈM½΅•Ρ‘₯ΉœΡΌ)½ΉΝ₯‘•Θ₯́‘½ά΅Υ ™±•α₯‰₯±₯Ρδε½ΤΉ••₯Έ)ε½Υȁ‰ΥΝ₯Ή•ΝΜΈMŠé½™™•Θ‰•Ρѕȁ™±•α₯‰₯±₯Ρδ)™½Θ™ΥΡΥΙ”Ή••‘́…Ή…Έ‰•Ρѕȁ‘…Ή‘±”)‘…Ή•ΜΝՍ …́…±±½δ½…Ρ₯ΉΜ°…‘‘₯Ήœ„)Ή•ά₯ΉΡ•Ι΅•‘₯…Ρ”±…ε•Θ°½Θ‘…Ή₯ΉœΡ‘”‰…Ν”)΅•Ρ…°Έ ½ΝЁ₯́…±ΝΌ„½ΉΝ₯‘•Ι…Ρ₯½Έ€΄MŠeΜ)½ΝЁ΅½Ι”Υΐ΅™Ι½ΉΠ‰ΥЁ΅…䁉”΅½Ι”™ΥΡΥΙ”)ΑΙ½½˜…ΉΝ…Ω”΅½Ή•δ₯ΈΡ‘”±½ΉœΙΥΈΈ) ½ΉΝ₯‘•Ι₯ΉœΡ‘”Ν…΅Α±•Με½Τ΅•…ΝΥΙ”…Ή)Ρ‘”έ…δε½Τ΅•…ΝΥΙ”Ρ‘•΄έ₯±°₯΅Α…Πέ‘₯ )…Ή…±ε͕ȁ₯́ΝΥ₯Ρ…‰±”™½Θε½Υȁ…ΑΑ±₯…Ρ₯½ΈΈ)M…΅Α±”Ν₯锁₯́…Έ½‰Ω₯½Ύё₯ΉœΡΌ½ΉΝ₯‘•Θ)έ‘•Έ‘½½Ν₯Ήœε½Υȁ…Ή…±εΝ•ΘΈ •ε½ΉΝ₯΅Α±δ)έ‘•Ρ‘•Θ½ΘΉ½Πε½Υȁͅ΅Α±•Μέ₯±°™₯Π°½ΉΝ₯‘•Θ)έ‘•Ρ‘•Θ½ΘΉ½ΠΡ‘”…Ή…±ε͕ȁε½Τ‰Υδέ₯±°‰”)™ΥΡΥΙ”ΑΙ½½˜Έ ‘½½Ν₯Ήœ„½…Ρ₯ΉΜ…Ή…±εΝ•ΙΜ)έ₯Ρ Ρ‘”Ι₯‘Ё™•…ΡΥɕ́…Έ₯΅ΑΙ½Ω”)ΑΙ½‘ՍΡ₯Ω₯Ρ䁙½Θ΅•…ΝΥΙ₯ΉœΝ…΅Α±•ΜΡ½‘…δ°)…Ή…‘…ΑЁѼ‘…Ή•Μ₯ΈΡ‘”Α…ΙΡ́ε½ΤΑ±…Ρ”)…ΉΡ‘”΅…Ι­•Ρ́ε½ΤΝ•ΙΩ”ΈQ‘₯́•αΡ•Ή‘́ё”)±₯™”½˜Ρ‘”aI₯ΉΝΡΙΥ΅•ΉΠ…Ή₯ٕ́ε½Τ΅½Ι”)½ΑΑ½ΙΡΥΉ₯Ρ₯•ΜΡΌέ₯ΈΉ•ά‰ΥΝ₯Ή•ΝΜΈ)e½Υȁͅ΅Α±”Ν‘…Α”έ₯±°‘•…Ω₯±δ₯Ή™±Υ•Ή”Ρ‘”)­₯Ή½˜…Ή…±ε͕ȁε½Τ‰Υ丁1½Ήœ…ΉΝ­₯ΉΉδ)Ν…΅Α±•Μ…Ι”‰•ΡѕȁΝΥ₯Ρ•ΡΌΝ±½ΡΡ•‘…΅‰•ΙΜ)‰•…ΥΝ”Ρ‘•δ…ΈΝ±₯‘”Ρ‘ɽ՝ Ρ‘”½Α•Ή₯Ήœ)‰•Ρέ••ΈΡ‘”ΝΡ…”…ΉΡ‘”‘½½ΘΈ]₯Ρ „)Ν±½ΡΡ•‘…΅‰•Θε½Τ…Έ΅½Ω”Ρ‘”Ν…΅Α±”)…±½Ήœέ₯Ρ‘½ΥЁ‘…Ω₯ΉœΡΌ½Α•Έ…Ή±½Ν”)Ρ‘”₯ΉΝΡΙΥ΅•ΉΠΙ•Α•…Ρ•‘±δΈ!½έ•Ω•Θ°„±½Ν•)‘…΅‰•ΘΙ•‘Ս•ΜΡ‘”Ι₯Ν¬½˜ε½Υȁͅ΅Α±”)‰•₯Ήœ‰Υ΅Α•‘ΥΙ₯Ήœ΅•…ΝΥΙ•΅•ΉΠ€΄)έ‘₯ έ₯±°₯Ω”ε½Τ₯Ή…ΥΙ…Ρ”Ι•ΝΥ±ΡΜΈ) Υ±­δΝ…΅Α±•Μέ₯Ρ ½΅Α±•ΰ•½΅•ΡΙ₯•Μ)έ½Ι¬έ•±°₯Έ„±½Ν•‘…΅‰•ΘΈ)aI…Ή…±εΝ•Ίέ₯Ρ ±…ɝ•Θ‘…΅‰•Θ΅…δ)‘…Ω”…‘‘₯Ρ₯½Ή…°™•…ΡΥɕ́ё…ЁٔͅΡ₯΅”Έ)½Θ•α…΅Α±”°±…ɝ•Θ‘…΅‰•Ί…Έ½΅”)έ₯Ρ ‘Υ…°…΅•Ι„Ω₯•έ́™½Θ•…Ν₯•Θ΅½Ω•΅•ΉΠ)…Ι½ΥΉ„Ν…΅Α±”½ΘΡ‘”…‰₯±₯ΡδΡΌΕΥ₯­±δ)…‘©ΥΝЁ‘₯ΝΡ…Ή”™Ι½΄Ρ‘”Ν…΅Α±”™½ΘΑ…ΙΡΜ)½˜‘₯™™•Ι•ΉΠ‘•₯‘ΡΜΈ½ΘΝ½΅”‰ΥΝ₯Ή•ΝΝ•Μ)…ΥΡ½΅…Ρ₯…±±δΑ½Ν₯Ρ₯½Ή₯ΉœΝ…΅Α±•Μ₯́Α…Ι„΄)΅½ΥΉΠΡΌΡ‘”½Α•Ι…Ρ₯½Έ‰•…ΥΝ”₯Ё™Ι••ΜΡ‘”)½Α•Ι…ѽȁѼΑ•Ι™½Ι΄½Ρ‘•ΘΡ…ͭ́ݑ₯±ΝЁё”)aI₯́х­₯Ήœ΅•…ΝΥΙ•΅•ΉΡΜΈ½Θ½Ρ‘•ΙΜ°)΅…ΉΥ…±±δΑ½Ν₯Ρ₯½Ή₯ΉœΡ‘”Ν…΅Α±”₯́ΝΥ™™₯₯•ΉΠΈ)]‘…ѕٕȁε½ΥȁΉ••‘́™½Θ…ΈaI…Ή…±εΝ•Θ°)!₯Ρ…‘€!₯ ΅Q• Ή…±εΡ₯…°M₯•Ή”)‘…́ё”Ι₯‘Ё…Ή…±ε͕ȁ™½Θε½Υȁ‰ΥΝ₯Ή•ΝΜΈ) ‘½½Ν”‰•Ρέ••Έ½Υȁ‰•Ή‘Ρ½ΐPM•Ι₯•Μ°)`΅MΡΙ…Ρ„δΘΐ°5aa$€Ψ…Ή‘…Ή‘‘•±)`΅5PΰΐΐΐΡΌ΅•…ΝΥΙ”½…Ρ₯ΉœΡ‘₯­Ή•ΝΜΈ) ½ΉΡ…ΠΎѽ‘…䁙½Θ΅½Ι”₯Ή™½Ι΅…Ρ₯½ΈΈ)5…ΡЁ-Ι•₯Ή•Θ₯́„AΙ½‘ՍЁ ΥΝ₯Ή•ΝΜ)•Ω•±½Α΅•ΉΠ5…Ή…•Θ…Ё!₯Ρ…‘€!₯ ΅Q• )Ή…±εΡ₯…°M₯•Ή”Έ!₯Ρ…‘€!₯ ΅Q• )Ή…±εΡ₯…°M₯•Ή”‘…́„Ι₯ €Πΐε•…Θ)‘•Ι₯Ρ…”½˜ΑΙ½Ω₯‘₯Ήœ‘₯ ΅Ρ• …Ή…±εΝ₯Μ)•ΕΥ₯Α΅•ΉΠ…ΉΝ•ΙΩ₯•Μ°‘•Ν₯Ή•ΡΌ΅••Π)Ρ‘”Ρ½Υ ‘…±±•Ή•Μ½˜„Ι…Α₯‘±δ•Ω½±Ω₯Ήœ)₯Ή‘ΥΝΡΙ₯…°Ν•Ρ½ΘΈ