STOMATOLOGY EDU JOURNAL 2017, Volume 4, Issue 3 SEJ_3-2017_Online - Page 29

Table 2. Comparison of changes during treatment with Fränkel and Farmand. Variables Sagittal Vertical Dental Farmand p-value FR-2 Mean SD Mean SD SNA (°) 0.2 0.7 0.5 0.6 0.115 SNB (°) 3.3 1.9 3.9 1.6 0.166 ANB (°) -3.2 1.7 -3.5 1.6 0.617 Witts (mm) -2.3 1.5 -2.4 1.0 0.431 GoGn (mm) 2.7 1.5 3.0 2.3 0.544 Co-Gn (mm) 2.6 1.2 2.4 1.9 0.645 Co-Pog (mm) 4.5 1.9 3.0 2.3 0.012 Overjet (mm) -3.5 2.3 -4.2 3.3 0.407 Jarabak (%) -2.1 1.8 -2.6 2.2 0.384 GoGn-Sn (°) 2.3 1.8 1.9 3.0 0.549 Palatal-GoGn (°) 2.2 2.1 1.2 1.9 0.378 Facial Angle (°) 2.2 1.2 2.6 1.8 0.706 Gonial Angle 4.9 3 3.6 2.6 0.097 U1-Sn (°) -5.7 4.2 -5.6 3.6 0.954 IMPA (°) 6.2 3.8 7.2 5.2 0.424 Interincisal Angle (°) 0.3 4.7 1 5.5 0.645 dyle to the gnathion), Co-Pog (the distance from the condyle to the pogonion), overjet, Jarabak index (the ratio between the posterior and anterior face heights; S–Go/N–Me), GoGn-Sn (the angle between SN and the mandibular plane), Palatal-GoGn (the angle between the palatal and mandibular plane), facial angle (the angle formed by the intersection of the Frankfort plane with the nasion-pogonion line), 1 to SN (angle between the long axis of the upper central incisor and the anterior cranial base), IMPA (the angle between the long axis of the lower central incisor and the mandibular plane), and the interincisal angle (the angle between the upper and lower incisors). The measurements were performed before and after the treatment radiographs. Each film was traced by one investigator on 0.003-inch frosted acetate with a 0.3 mm lead pencil. Measure- ments were taken to the nearest 0.5 mm or degrees. Four weeks after the first measurements, the tracings and measurements were repeated by the same investigator. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to measure the reliability of the results. ICC indicated acceptable to excellent (0.72 to 0.92) reliability for the measurements. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov normality test was applied to the cephalometric data. The statistical significance was set at p<0.05. The magnification factor of the cephalograms was standardized at 8%. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences, Version 22 (SPSS Inc. Chicago, Illinois, USA) was used to analyze the data. The paired t-test was used for the intra group evaluation if the distribution was normal; Stomatology Edu Journal otherwise, the Wilcoxon test was used. The T-test was used to compare the data between the two groups if the distribution was normal; otherwise, the Mann-Whitney test was used. Effects of Farmand and Fränkel-2 functional appliances on mandibular deficiency in late mixed dentition 3. Results In the Farmand appliance group, paired t-tests showed a significant ANB decrease of 3.2 (SD 1.7) degrees (p<0.001) and an SNB increase of 3.3 (SD 1.9) degrees (p<0.001). Overjet significantly decreased from 7.1 (SD 2.1) mm to 3.6 (SD 1.9) mm. IMPA significantly increased by 6.2 (SD 3.8) degrees (p<0.001) (Table 1). In the FR-2 group, ANB significantly decreased by 3.5 (SD 1.6) degrees (p<0.001), and SNB significantly increased from 73.6 (SD 3.4) to 77.6 (SD 1.5) degrees (p<0.001). Overjet also showed a significant decrease from 9.2 (SD 3.2) to 5 (1.6) mm (P<0.001). IMPA significantly increased from 91.7 (SD 8) to 98.9 (SD 6.5) degrees (p<0.001) (Table 1). Both appliances significantly increased GoGn, Co- Gn, and Co-Pog. T-test did not show any significant differences between the two groups (Table 2). Figures 3 and 4 show before and after treatment pictures of a patient treated with the Farmand appliance. 4. Discussion The findings of this study showed that, both the Farmand and FR-2 appliances could successfully improve the intermaxillary discrepancy in Class II growing patients with mandibular deficiency. 179