STOMATOLOGY EDU JOURNAL 2017, Volume 4, Issue 3 SEJ_3-2017_Online - Page 26

ORTHODONTICS Effects of Farmand and Fränkel-2 functional appliances on mandibular deficiency in late mixed dentition Hamid Reza Pakshir 1a , Abdolreza Jamilian 2a* , Ali Mokhtar 2b , Alireza Darnahal 2c , Zinat Kamali 3d , Ludovica Nucci 4e , Letizia Perillo 4f Orthodontic Department, Orthodontic Research Center, School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran Orthodontic Department, Craniomaxillofacial Research Center, Tehran Dental Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran 3 National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran 4 Multidisciplinary Department of Medical-Surgical and Dental Specialties, Università degli studi della Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, Naples, Italy 1 2 DMD, PhD, Professor DMD, Orthodontist c DDS d MSc e Undergraduate student, Course of Dentistry f DMD, PhD, Professor, Head and Chair a b Received: April 03, 2017 Revised: May 05, 2017 Accepted: August 14, 2017 Published: August 16, 2017 Academic Editor: Irina Nicoleta Zetu, DDS, PhD, Professor, „Gr. T. Popa“ University of Medicine and Farmacy Jassy, Jassy, Romania Cite this article: Pakshir HR, Jamilian A, Mokhtar A, Darnahal A, Kamali Z, Nucci L, Perillo L. Effects of Farmand and Fränkel-2 functional appliances on mandibular deficiency in late mixed dentition. Stoma Edu J. 2017;4(3):176-181. Abstract DOI: 10.25241/stomaeduj.2017.4(3).art.3 Introduction: The present study aimed to evaluate the cephalometric changes in Class II Division I mandibular deficient patients treated with the Fränkel 2 and Farmand appliances as a new functional appliance. Methodology: Fifty-five subjects treated for Class II Division I malocclusion and mandibular deficiency were selected for the study. Twenty-seven of the subjects (17 girls, 10 boys) with the mean age of 11.1 (SD 1.4) years were treated with the Farmand appliance and twenty-eight of them (15 girls, 13 boys) with the mean age of 11 (SD 1.5) years were treated with the FR-2 appliance. T-test, paired t-test, Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney test were used to evaluate the data. Results: A skeletal Class I relationship and a marked reduction in overjet were achieved in both treatment groups. ANB decreased significantly by 3.2 (SD 1.7) degrees in the Farmand appliance group and it decreased significantly by 3.5 (SD 1.6) degrees in the Fränkel group. Conclusion: Both Farmand and Fränkel appliances were successful in the correction of mandibular deficiency in Class II Division 1 patients. Keywords: malocclusion, Angle Class II Division I, orthodontic appliances, functional appliances. 1. Introduction A Class II malocclusion may result from a mandibular deficiency, maxillary excess or a combination of both, but the most common finding is mandibular skeletal retrusion. 1,2 Approximately 15% of American children have Class II malocclusion; however, It seems that Class II problems are most prevalent in Caucasians of Northern European descent (for instance, 25% of children in Denmark are reported to be Class II. 3 Different removable functional appliances such as Activator, Bionator, Fränkel-2, Herbst, R-appliance, and Twin Block have been used to treat Class II division 1 malocclusions and mandibular deficiency. 4-13 Fränkel-2 (FR-2) is one of the appliances commonly used in the treatment of Class II division 1 malocclusion. This appliance was developed nearly 50 years ago by Rolf Fränkel as an orthopedic exercise device designed to reprogram the neuromuscular system of the orofacial complex. 14,15 Recently, Perillo et al. performed a meta-analysis of articles studying the changes produced by the FR-2 appliance during the treatment of growing patients with Class II malocclusions and reported that the FR-2 appliance had a statistically significant impact on the size of the mandible in the treated patients. 16 Another functional appliance used for the correction of mandibular deficiency is the “Farmand Appliance”. 17,18 This appliance has been shown to cause significant changes in the position and anterior displacement of the hyoid bone, resulting in the improved airway and respiratory status of the patients. An electronic search in literature shows that no one *Corresponding author: Dr Abdolreza Jamilian, No 2713, Vali Asr St., Tehran 1966843133, Iran Tel: 0098-21-22011892; Fax: 0098-21-22022215; e-mail: 176 Stoma Edu J. 2017;4(3): 176-181