5. Incapacity is required. There are individuals who disproportionately burden or threaten society by their conduct. They burglarize homes, steal large amounts of property, disproportionately affect community safety, tax law enforcement resources by committing multiple crimes, or threaten society by acts of violence. These individuals need to be identified prior to sentencing and careful evaluation should be made to see if there are community responses that can effectively address these individual’s needs while maintaining public safety. If available responses are inadequate to effectively mitigate the potential impact/danger to the community, incarceration needs to be used to protect the public. Rehabilitation would be secondarily addressed in prison. III. Where community treatment responses are utilized, the system must be effective. Science indicates that prompt and effective responses to criminogenic needs reduces the risk of recidivism (Labrecque, Smith, Lovins, & Latessa, 2014). To be effective, prompt assessment must be made of the offender’s risk, criminogenic needs, barrier needs, and appropriate responses. Of the seven dynamic criminogenic needs, antisocial attitudes, values and beliefs, antisocial personality factors, antisocial peers, and family conflict comprise the criminogenic need areas that have the highest correlation to recidivism. Although North Dakota has recently stepped up responses in the areas of substance abuse, housing, and employment, these antisocial and family needs which have the highest correlation to crime have not been aggressively addressed. These antisocial factors negatively impact all other recovery efforts attempted in the community. For example, offenders may get a job, but if they struggle with antisocial values, they fail to recognize the significance of maintaining employment and setting career goals. These offenders may leave their job after a short period, weakening their stability, and adding to their risk to reoffend. Effective community management requires addressing these antisocial needs contemporaneously with other responses in an effective manner. IV. Tailor responses to where needs exist. It is also important for North Dakota to quantify the various needs that exist among the offender population and to document the geographic areas where these needs exist. In some areas of the state, there may not be any demand for a particular service. It is not economical to establish a response for a need that does not exist in a particular location. On the other hand, there may be established needs in some localities for which there is no appropriate response. These issues need to be documented and appropriately addressed. References: Cullen, F.T., Myer, A.J., & Latessa, E.J. (2009). Eight Lessons from Moneyball: The high cost of ignoring evidence-based corrections. Victims and Offenders, 4, 197-213. James, J., Eisen, L.B., & Subramanian, R. (2012). A view from the states: Evidence-based public safety legislation. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 102(3), 821-850. Labreque, R.M., Smith, P., Lovins, B.K., & Latessa, E.J. (2014). The importance of reassessment: How changes in the LSI-R Risk Score Can Improve the Prediction of Recidivism. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 53: 116-128. Latessa, E.J. & Holsinger, A. (1998). The importance of evaluating correctional programs: Assessing outcome and quality. Corrections Management Quarterly, 2(4), 22-29. National Institute of Corrections. (2004). Implementing Evidence-Based Principles in Community Corrections: Collaboration for Systemic Change in the Criminal Justice System. Retrieved from: https://nicic.gov/implementing-evidence- based-principles-community-corrections-collaboration-systemic-change-criminal Pratt, T.C. (2009). Addicted to Incarceration: Corrections Policy and the Politics of Misinformation in the United States. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Warren, R.K. (2007). Evidence-based practices and state sentencing policy: Ten Policy initiatives to reduce recidivism. Indiana Law Journal, 82, 1307-1318 EXPERIENCED FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGISTS Stacey Benson PsyD, LP email@example.com 18 THE GAVEL • Expert Witness Testimony • Evaluation of Opposing Experts Reports • Forensic Record Review V. Continuous assessment and improvement. Many of the changes that occur in the government become events that are never reviewed. Compilation of empirical evidence should be continuously reviewed to judge system outcomes and to study areas for improvement. All affected agencies should be involved in and committed to this effort. • Forensic Psychological Evaluations • Case Consultation Jessica Mugge, PhD, LP firstname.lastname@example.org 701-297-7540 COMPETENT. PROFESSIONAL. EFFECTIVE. HONEST.