SOLLIMS Sampler Volume 8, Issue 1 - Page 7

2. LESSONS A. TOPIC. Consolidating Gains (A Historical Perspective) (2557) Observation. Civil Affairs forces provide a human geography-focused capability in stability operations that enable commanders at echelon to gain intimate knowledge of the operational environment, be sensitive to changes in stability over time, and quickly execute operational branches and sequels to consolidate gains. Discussion. DoDI 3000.05, Stability Operations, 2009, defines stability operations as “an overarching term encompassing various military missions, tasks, and activities conducted outside the United States in coordination with other instruments of national power to maintain or reestablish a safe and secure environment, provide essential governmental services, emergency infrastructure reconstruction, and humanitarian relief.” When U.S. forces prepared for Operation Torch in November 1942, little preparation was made for the consolidation of gains in North Africa upon achieving success against Nazi forces. Within three weeks of landing in Tunisia, LTG Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote to GEN George C. Marshall, “There is an acute need for such a body [of civilian experts] because the success of future operations from this base w ill depend very largely upon the speed with which the economy of this country is rehabilitated, at least to the point of sustaining a majority of the population above the starvation level.” Four days later, he wrote GEN Marshal again: “The sooner I can get rid of all these questions that are outside the military scope, the happier I will be! Sometimes I think I live ten years each week, of which at least nine are absorbed in political and economic matters.” (United States Army in World War II Special Studies, Civil Affairs: Soldiers Become Governors, published by the Department of the Army's Office of the Chief of Military History, 1964.) By the time U.S. forces landed in Normandy in June1944, the Army had built an extensive civil affairs capability that could provide commanders with a clear understanding of the noncombatant situation in the operational environment and organize local resources to address local issues so as to relieve commanders from using military resources to meet statutory and operational obligations to noncombatants. In one example, a civil affairs detachment prepared exclusively for the eventual occupation of Munich, Germany. From the time it formed in England a year before entering Munich, the 52-man Military Government Detachment F-213 spent many days “poring over maps and air photos, consulting reference works, Table of Contents | Quick Look | Contact PKSOI Page 6 of 28