SOLLIMS Sampler Volume 8, Issue 1 - Page 28

Annex C. Organizational History & Structure of U.S. Army CA U.S. Army Civil Affairs originated in the U.S. military in the aftermath of WWI. Between 1918 and 1923, the U.S. Army occupied the German Rhineland, performing civil administration tasks. Lessons from this involvement led to the creation of a formal CA capacity for “Military Government” (known as such until 1959). Over the years, CA has undergone several structural changes, as described in the “U.S. Army Civil Affairs: History Handbook.” After WWII, Civil Affairs units participated in major conflicts such as the Korean War, Vietnam War, and operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. After the Vietnam War, incremental steps were taken for CA to become a central part of Army Special Operations. In the post-Vietnam drawdown, most active duty CA units were disbanded. The majority of CA units remained in the U.S. Army Reserve (USAR), except for the active duty 96 th CA Battalion at Fort Bragg, NC. The 96 th became subordinate to U.S. Army Special Operations Command (USASOC), and all reserve units were assigned to what became the U.S. Army Civil Affairs and Psychological Operations Command (USACAPOC). By 1993, all active and reserve CA were formally designated Army Special Operations Forces. The past decade and a half of war in Iraq and Afghanistan has further shaped CA. In 2006, CA became an official Regular Branch of the U.S. Army. USACAPOC was reassigned to support the General Purpose Forces via the U.S. Army Reserve Command (USARC). Special Operations via USASOC, however, retained the 96 th CA Battalion. Personnel from the 96 th were used to form four additional active CA Battalions (91 st , 92 nd , 97 th , and 98th) under the new 95 th CA Brigade. An additional CA Brigade with five battalions, the 85 th , was created in 2011, to support the conventional forces under the U.S. Army Forces Command (FORSCOM). Today, there are three main sections of CA, each supporting a different aspect of the Army. (Some are active, and others are reserve; some support special operations, and others support the conventional forces.) The 95 th CA Brigade is active duty and continues to support Special Operations. The 85 th CA is also active duty and supports the General Purpose Forces; however, it is currently in the process of being reduced to one battalion. USACAPOC continues to host the majority of CA units as reserves, supporting the General Purpose Forces. Table of Contents | Quick Look | Contact PKSOI Page 27 of 28