SOLLIMS Sampler Volume 8, Issue 1 - Page 22

and other resources. One NGO reports running a health clinic 12 miles outside of Mosul. 45 On 14 Nov, OCHA reported: “A 10-bed trauma centre is being established approximately 15km east of Gogachly to manage the civilian casualties coming out of the city. The centre is semi-mobile and can be moved further into the city as it opens up to humanitarian actors in order to minimize the distance people injured in the crossfire have to travel to reach medical care.” 18 The prompt return of DCs to retaken areas is beneficial in terms of freeing up DC camp capacity and in promoting stability. As ISF forces advance and secure portions of Mosul, DCs may return to homes in retaken areas while combat operations are ongoing in other parts of the city. To this end, ISF forces in eastern Mosul are being tasked with “rebuilding infrastructure and accommodating the return of displaced residents.” 5 Limiting factors for return of DCs include both security conditions and lack of food, water, health services, etc. Security conditions also affect IO and NGO activities, which in turn delays the provision of essential services. IOs and NGOs depend on ISF to establish security, to include clearing retaken areas of unexploded ordnance (UXO). OCHA cites civil-military coordination as a “critical enabler” for humanitarian response in areas close to combat operations. As of late November, OCHA had led more than 20 missions to “newly-retaken areas to assess security conditions and establish humanitarian access, often just days after the conflict has subsided. Access missions pave the way for partners to transport emergency assistance to retaken areas in the form of ready-to-eat food, water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and health care.” 23 OCHA noted an improvement in humanitarian access when ISF consolidated control over eastern Mosul in early January 2017. 46 The Iraqi federal police had reassigned 3 police brigades to eastern Mosul on 12 December. 5 This decision probably contributed to the improvement in security conditions that OCHA reported in January. Indirect fire (IDF) from ISIS controlled areas had limited IO/NGOs' access to retaken areas. OCHA reported a reduction in IDF in mid- January, which also contributed to increased aid delivery in eastern Mosul. 47 The need for food aid in retaken areas has been mitigated by the rapid re- establishment of commercial markets selling food. 47 Meeting water requirements has proven more difficult for IOs and NGOs. Improved security in eastern Mosul allowed UNICEF to scale up water tanker operations to deliver over 250,000 gallons per day in mid-January, but this was still not sufficient to make up for damage to water mains and pumping stations. 47 Assessment of water treatment plants has been delayed by security concerns. 48 By mid-February water truck deliveries had increased to over 600,000 gallons per day. 49 Also in mid- February, one water treatment plant came online and began serving 70,000 residents; however, service ceased shortly thereafter when its generator was hit by IDF. As of mid-January, WHO reported that security conditions in eastern Mosul were a limiting factor in provision of health services inside the city. 50 Table of Contents | Quick Look | Contact PKSOI Page 21 of 28