SOLLIMS Sampler Special Edition, May 2017 - Page 7

2. LESSONS a. TOPIC. Leadership Failure by UN Peacekeeping Leaders – Malakal Violence, South Sudan (Lesson #2552) Observation. Leadership failure – by UN peacekeeping leaders with responsibility for the Malakal Protection of Civilians (POC) site, South Sudan in February 2016 – was a contributory factor to spoilers’ gaining access to this UN site and the resultant deaths of civilians and destruction of property. Senior leadership’s failure to act on perimeter security issues and on early warning signs, along with failure to act in a timely manner on incidents of violence against civilians, amounts to a case of gross negligence – a case that offers valuable leadership tips. Discussion. Event Summary: In February 2016, Malakal POC was an overcrowded camp / POC site with some 47,000 people – including members of Dinka and Shilluk communities which had existing grudges/disputes between them, as well as the Nuer community. On 16 February, two men attempted to enter Juliet Gate of the Malakal POC with rifle magazines, but were stopped by contract guards, then questioned at the gate by UN Formed Police Unit (FPU) members; however, men “in Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) uniforms” from outside the gate then intervened, beating one of the FPU personnel and allowing the two detained men to get away. During the evening of 16 February, small-scale inter-communal clashes between Dinka and Shilluk IDPs took place. On 17 February, the fencing along the eastern perimeter was ripped open near Block P, a Dinka area in Sector 2, less than 10 meters from an UNMISS sentry post. Small clashes again broke out between Dinka and Shilluk youth in the evening of 17 February. UNMISS sent forces to the area between Sectors 1 and 2; the situation briefly calmed. Hours later, around 10:30 p.m., violence erupted again, largely focused within Sector 2 of the camp, where the Dinka and Nuer were located. Initially, the parties involved in the clashes (Dinka and Shilluk) employed rocks, spears, and machetes, but the situation deteriorated when guns were fired and grenades were thrown. Nuer members joined the fighting against Dinka. Many of the IDPs who lived in Sector 2, or in Sector 3 further south, fled their homes for Sector 1. Nuer and Shilluk fighters eventually retreated back to their shelters, but gunshots continued intermittently for several hours. Around 3 a.m. on 18 February, the situation calmed for the night. On 18 February, fighters “in SPLA uniforms,” who had already been spotted along the perimeter during the night of 17 February, began entering the same breach in the eastern perimeter during the period 10:20 a.m.-11 a.m. on 18 February. During this time, the fighting resumed at an even greater intensity than Table of Contents | Quick Look | Contact PKSOI Page 6 of 36