SEVENSEAS Marine Conservation & Travel Issue 11, April 2016 - Page 115

Photography: Page 104 Svalbard is the best example of Linking Tourism & Conservation and where totally protected polar bears can be observed under well-regulated and -managed conditions. Page 106 Sea ice is frozen seawater that floats on the ocean surface. It forms in both the Arctic and the Antarctic in each hemisphere’s winter, and it retreats, but does not completely disappear, in the summer. It plays an important role for the climate and ecosystems. The extent and thickness of sea ice covering the Arctic ocean is significantly decreasing. Page 108 Reindeer have a circumpolar distribution with several subspecies in different areas. The Svalbard reindeer is a small subspecies of Rangifer tarandus. The subspecies found in Svalbard is exclusive to this area. Reindeer are found in virtually all non-glaciated parts of the archipelago. They are most dense on Nordenskiöld Land, Edgeøya and Barentsøya. Page 110 Sea ice is frozen seawater that floats on the ocean surface. It forms in both the Arctic and the Antarctic in each hemisphere’s winter, and it retreats, but does not completely disappear, in the summer. It plays an important role for the climate and ecosystems. The extent and thickness of sea ice covering the Arctic ocean is significantly decreasing. Page 112 A number of cruise ship operators work on Svalbard during the summer months, bringing tourists from across the world to visit the landscapes and biodiversity of this Arctic archipelago. Most, if not all, of these cruise ship operators are part of the Association of Arctic Expedition Cruise Operators (AECO), an organisation promoting respectable, environmentally-friendly and safe expeditions in the Arctic. Previous Page Both male and female walrus possess the same impressive and distinctive tusks, which can grow up to 1m long. A male Walrus can weigh up to 1500kg and stretch 3.5m in length. Around Svalbard, Walruses reside year-round and it is home to around 2,000 animals. Walruses survive under narrow ecological conditions: They require shallow water in coastal areas for feeding, thick sea-ice to support their weight and haul-out areas, where they can rest while out of the water. This page Krossfjorden lies within the Spitsbergen National Park in the Svalbard archipelago. The mountain formations in this area represent different geological periods and the site is recognized as an important monitoring station for climate variations. Lucky visitors to the area might witness the calving of ice into the sea from one of the five surrounding fjords.

To learn more about LT&C visit www.ltandc.org

Be sure to check out information on the LT&C Study-Tours on page 28.

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